Alexander Chikwanda
Alexander Chikwanda

Finance Minister Alexander Chikwanda has revealed that part of the UDS 750 million raised from Zambia’s debut 10 year Eurobond will be used to recapitalize Zambia Railways.

And Zambia’s inaugural bond was yesterday oversubscribed by 24 times with foreign investors willing to lend the country up to USD 12 billion as appetite for Sub Saharan debt instrument grows.

Mr. Chikwanda told a media briefing in Lusaka this morning that USD 120 million from the bond will go towards revamping the operations of the railway company.

He also revealed that a further USD 186 million from the bond will be used to pay for Zambia’s equity stake in the development of the Kafue Lower Power Station.

Mr. Chikwanda stated that the Nitrogen Chemicals will also benefit through capital injection from the money raised in yesterday’s bond issue.

He assured that government will prudently utilize the funds on infrastructural projects as outlined in the Sixth National Development Plan.

The Finance Minister has also promised to publish a list of projects that the funds will be used for and the schedule of disbursement to ensure transparency and accountability.

Mr. Chikwanda also reassured that the country’s foreign debt stock still remains sustainable even after the USD 750 million bond issue.
Meanwhile, Mr. Chikwanda has revealed that Zambia had to take up USD 750 million than the intended USD 500 million, the largest order book for Sub Saharan Africa this year but at 5.375% also the lowest coupon.

He explained that the successful first sovereign bond represents Zambia’s high rating by the international community.

The Finance Minister also cautioned some political groupings from politicizing the successful bond issuance saying credit should go to all Zambians.

Mr. Chikwanda said no politician should take credit for the success because development in Zambia will only happen if there is collective responsibility by all Zambians.

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99 COMMENTS

  1. Congratulations to GRZ for the debt issue! There is great benefit that we can reap if we are seen to be doing things in a systematic and level headed manner. It is in this way that we must now proceed because yesterday marked a fundamental transformation for Zambia…..the bond holders will now take a very very keen interest in the manner in which we conduct our affairs and the policy statements that our leaders make.

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  2. Indeed credit should go to all Zambians not just the MMD and Musokotwane who worked tirelessly to have Zambia rated by the rating agencies so that the country can borrow from capital markets as it has done now! Lol!

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    • Give credit when it is due.MMD became unpopular because of these positive results. Big up to MMD,Levy,RB. MMD we will remember you.

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  3. So when something is good then credit to all Zambians! If it is perceived to be bad then Abash the corrupt MMD! Sigh!

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    • henry so according to you, the best way to improve railways is for for gov to run it. do u know who long the gov has been running the railway systems. the same augment can be made for airport. the best way to improvement in not by gov own them, it bay giving to some one with capacity to develop and run them. lets try new things and not stick to the traditional that give us false security.

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  4. this is yet another *****ic thing to do. these parastatals have never made profits. its another bottomless pit just like NCZ. this money should have been used for road construction. we seem not to learn from the past

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    • Get a life man, don’t you still understand that our roads are over burdened by abnomal loads hence need to diversify into railways. By so doing the much needed time bomb of employment creation will be attained through railways and bussiness related companies will come into play by virtue of a more sustainable communication network.I bet you are lugging in this area of emancipation of the locals. Big up Zambians for this noble cause.

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    • ha ha ha ,your reason is good by wrong conclusion.henry so according to you, the best way to improve railways is for for gov to run it. do u know who long the gov has been running the railway systems. the same augment can be made for airport. the best way to improvement in not by gov own them, it bay giving to some one with capacity to develop and run them. lets try new things and not stick to the traditional that give us false security.

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  5. PF should not take the credit,, all this is a result of the MMD good Governance program initiated by RB and his team. Viva MMD  

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    • you suffer from RBlitis and desperately need prayers of deliverance.RB was the most corrupt thug seen in a long time

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  6. Ba Chikwanda you’ve not even completed the auditing of RSZ but you already know how is needed to revamp Zambia Railways! Tekanyeni! There’s no need to hurry. Carryout the Audit first before you pumping money into a white elephant. Those derailments and accidents won’t stop because you’re using Cecil Rhodes 100 year old line. Let’s just borrow $1.5 billion from the Chinese and relay a new rail track. That will be money well spent. We are going to be in a crisis very soon because in 4 years time our copper output will be 1.5 million tonnes. The time to think big is now otherwise we will have a crisis on our hands!

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    • I agree Livingstone – throwing a little bit of money here and there which will have no significant impact is not a wise thing to do. The PF should not politicise this either, they should sober up, look for proper areas of investment that have a high positive knock-on effect on other areas of the economy. Opening up the country by building new roads linking different provinces and districts would be a great start. We should also invest some real money into information, communication technologies!

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    • Livingstone
      Long term planing is paramount; with increased stable power supply there is nothing stopping the mines reaching those production levels and the pressure that would have on transport network…you have raised valid points there. May I ask your source for this $1.5Billion valuation you keep quoting if you do not mind!

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    • @Jay Jay, In 2009 a conference was held in Lusaka focusing on transport corridors in East and Southern Africa to enhance trade in the region. It was at this conference that estimates were revealed for the rehabilitation of ZR and TAZARA. The amounts were $1.5 bn+ in respect of ZR and $750m+ in respect of TAZARA. Unfortunately it seems the authorities are only interested in patch work i.e vigamba. Sad!

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  7. Its only fair and magnanimous for the PF government to accept that the MMD government paved the way for securing the loan. Had MMD left everything in a mess as or had the ensueing economic environment been negative, the PF government would not have secured the loan inside a year of talking office.

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  8. This is good Mr Minister.We can see light at the end of the tunnel,Atleast we have hope that we will be where we are suppose to be in the next few yrs.Working like this,i can assure you that you can stay in power for some time as we are seeing the fruits.

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  9. The PF Government is course to achieve economic prosperity for all Zambians. This certainly good news and it confirms what we have been saying about the tribal party and its allies including dumb-is-a moyo that they were hired guns out to paint a picture like investors have lost confidence when here we have seen the bond being over subscribed and raising US$750m instead of the initial US$500m. HH your betterness will just turn into madness coz the PF is on course.

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  10. Normally budgeting is done through parliament but Chikwanda is now dreaming what to spend the money on just as an individual……..
    ndeshitamo errrrrrr……, ulwashala nkashita errrrrrrr….

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    • I suppose not but after terminating the CA, it meant that funds had to be sourced to inject into the railline this may explain the decision to increase the amount from 500 – 750

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  11. Credit goes to MMD, however, i want warn PF government not undertake such fruitless ventures- what is the government interest which do not make profits. please leave these kinds of businesses to private sectors or better still form a partnership with some private companies to run the rail line for us.

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  12. Why are people getting excited about a debt in Zambia?

    The money does not belong to you, atleast that is the deffinition of a debt to me
    , You let an African man smell the money that odes not belong to them, they would kill It is the reason why the British jails are populated with Africans almost 30% considering their poplation is less than 7%

    These Bond will not be paid, by this regime, it for his reason that I support a one party state like UNIP which is accountable for all its debt , 5 years for any government is too little. Please dont compare the democracy of first world countries I am taking about Africa. Leave the 5 year rule for the elite, and smart people

    Thanks

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    • You are shallow and evidently so. $750m can be raised by ZRA in a period of no more than 6 months.
      A country rated B+ has capability to pay its debts as they fall due depending on their investment appetite.
      You seem not to have any financial knowledge and I maintain my challenge to you to produce your assumed ACCA and CIMA. You have proved to readers that you are an ACCA student at the most.

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    • Mushota you are actually smart than you let on!I don’t see the need to rejoice over debt either.Hope people just won’t use those millions for consumption,coz in effect they would have sold the country to the debtors

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    • Mushota learn to understand who you aaaaaare and who your parents are. some of us posses much more higher qualifications than what you are currently pursuing in Britain. Home is home however the status quo after all you are a black Zambian and nothing can ever change your DNA

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  13. The Never use borrowed money for consumption but investment, at the end of the day if this money will be paid back by the investments and not the Zambian people

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  14. Our litany of utterly failed projects and corporations reads like description of collapsed ancient empires.With that in mind,do we have the capacity to manage these Eurobond funds to any success?Putting the funds to ZRL sounds like waste because its never made money.

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  15. We applaud you sir. Let those who only know to Insult continue while you continue working tirelessly for mother Zambia. Many thanks sir. But again use this money wisely , don’t steal it like the MMD did. May God bless Zambia.

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  16. looks good in theory…but then thats PF for you,all talk nothing materialising.i think they realise now that its harder than it looked when they were just spectators

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  17. REVAMP KTZ AND MULUNGUSHI TEXILES. INCREASE DUTY ON CLOTHING FROM CHINA AND ON SALAULA OR BAN THEM. THEN OUR DEAD FACTORIES WILL SPRING TO LIFE AND PROVIDE EMPLOYMENT.
    EXPAND NITROGEN CHEMICALS AND THEN DO AWAY WITH THE LIKES OF MIYOMBO INVESTMENTS BENEFITING A FEW INDIVIDUALS.
    BUILD HOUSES FOR RENT IN NEW PROVINCIAL CENTRES.

    THIS MONEY SHOULD BE USED STRICTLY ON PROJECTS THAT GENERATOR INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT.

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    • you got all wrong.this should not be the job of gov but private person. its a recipe for failure. the economic model has failed us one too many times. if we repeat it we deserve to be poor

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    • Zambians are very good at talking without understanding issues. Gone are the days when  you think import substitution in of it self is a good policy. Countries as big as US and China depend heavily on exports markets and you what to close your small country both in terms of population and buying power. Part of the reasons the coys collapsed was size of the Zambian market. Some will say they will export, except that trade is done on a reciprocal basis, so it means we will also have our exports banned  

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  18. @Mushota – these are sovereign debts, nothing to do with which party forms government – in the end the taxpayer runs the gauntlet; the Euro crisis is for the best part a result of “consumption debts” in Europe…you come over as pretty disturbed most of the time – try a schrink…You remind me of Simba in exile…please REMEMBER WHO YOU ARE, no amount of sly racist remarks regarding africans or zambians in particular or the “third world” poor can change the fact that YOU too come from there….I bet your parents are/were simple, decent, “lliterate” human beings who broke their souls to secure your gudumilile today; don’t be mesmerised by the posh-bride in the mirror, she’s just your potyomkin visage, the core will forever and ever be african, amen…Else gob-up, bi…h!

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    • walasa mudal, the ***** Mushota thinks and believe that she has acquired what no any other Zambian has ever achieved, gulible. Most of our fellow learned Zambians have chieved greater education than what this young woman Mushota who ever acquire in her pursuit of books in a foreign foprmer colonial country.

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  19. why did we borrow US$750m instead of US$500 as planned. I hope PF has a plan for this loan? However, as the minister has not told us, i think they want to start planning now. How come H.E. Sata has not said anything about it?

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  20. Mr Chikwanda invest in Power stations, export excess, also toll roads linking all provinces and districts, infrastructure development to pave way for private investment (telecommunication ,good district roads, district tax free zones , new viable industries not old ones and other economic zones) in each province…..these will subsequently trigger more job creation and the rest…More money in pockets! Bravo PF and Good action on this,we are yet to see results on development without corruption….Abashi, Mmembe is already cashing in big time(draft constitution printers and copper haulage)

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    • that should be the thinking investing in energy telecommunication and roads. not creating parastatals. leave the job creation to private citizens

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  21. Country men bitterness is not good it just consumes you. Indeed MMD contributed and deserve a pat on the back. Re capitalization of NCZ and ZRL is good as its through such state enterprises that job creation can ensured by the GRZ. I believe the two institutions are very strategic to National development. Being critics for the sake of it will not take us any where. ONE ZAMBIA ONE NATION.

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  22. What is the business of government in these parastatals? This surely is going back to the UNIP days. Parastatals are inefficient anywhere in the world riddled with political considerations than business sense. How can government be spending money on ZRL when all state run instutions never register positive results.ZESCO for example is the devil facing ordinary Zambians without any alternative. If these fools where reasonable, they would have advocated for a stake in ZRL while allowing the concession holders to keep their stake. This would have allowed them representation on the company board so that Zambian interests are looked after while maintaining the private equity and operational outlook. But fools are fools all the time every tim

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    • Sober up my brother. How many people did NCZ, Mulungushi textiles(MTZ) , ZRL employ???? thousands. Am talking from experience as a former worker of MTZ at one time we were almost 2000 now imagine all those Jobs gone.. How many tones of cargo are we seeing on our roads today??? damaging the roads and accidents of fuel tankers… I think let us think about how many jobs will be created in the long run than just talking like cadres. Our brothers and sisters need to be employed.

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    • Mwami your thinking is wrong.  zamtel was more efficient with 700 worker than with 2000. then its stupid to re-employ tthe 1300 so that we the tax payers pay them for nothing. so you can see how wasteful gov can be. this UNIP thinking does seem to go away

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    • People you can recapitalise and privatise later when you find credible investors. Our people need jobs for now.

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    • @30.3 mention one UNIP policy that was right. Housing, agriculture, education, mining manufacturing. just mention one

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  23. All said and done.but we dont learn from the past.Has ever any one been to A Zambia Railway Guest houses, 5 Star, where bosses come to entertain themselves behing 8 foot walls, such were the excesses that doomed ZAMBIA RAILWAYS, so here we go again, lets hope the HON, Mininster is aware of this.

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  24. Mushota must be sick. You are confusing debt with aid, countries wide-world depend on debt to finance long term projects and our borrowing costs on this bond are close to the countries under stress in EU such Greece, Spain and Italy which is quite an achievement for the country. what we should pray for it guidance for our leaders to use this money for projects that enhances our ability to grow the economic and therefore repay the debt as people have already stated above. 

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  25. Good afternoon,

    Positive words coming from our Finance Minister. And as for those who are so skeptic about the debt, I dare them to tell us how else Zambia can be developed if not through a huge cash injection?

    At least we have mineral wealth, what do other countries have? Take for instance Greece – it has at least ten times more debts than we have, but only relys on ship construction, feta cheese and olive exports to sustain the economy.
    Tensions are very high there with the country’s PM facing a mammoth task of satisfying bailout creditors with their controversial austerity demands and keeping the peace with the Greek people who keep rejecting cutbacks.

    There other thing is that our debts can be written off but writing off Greek debts would be a catastrophe for the EU.

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    • I like you comment, but I hope we are getting debt in the hope of not repaying. This is what increased our borrowing cost. At local level Zambians have the tendency of borrowing with the hope that somehow the debt will disappear. Just look at Muteteke and Nchito. With this mentality our cost of borrowing locally will for ever be high

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  26. As for Mushota’s misguided politics cannot go without comment. Africa is in this mess mainly because leaders listen to people like you and end up over staying they welcome. If you have done the MBA you claim to hold you will understand that change is a necessity in each organisation including a country. Change brings with it fresh ideas which are the seed for development. I am sure your comment is motivated by the fact your grandfather is in state house and you would like him to be there forever. What we are sure of is no one will ever cheat us in over-staying they welcome. Ask banda, we are waiting for change from this government otherwise they will be shown the door. With money from the bond plus taxes we do not want excuses for lack of development

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  27. “European Union policy makers should mark sub-Saharan country, Zambia, which entered the international bond market Thursday. It is looking to sell its debut dollar bond at a yield that is on a par with fiscally-frail developed European economies. Currently, it is looking to borrow money more cheaply than Portugal and only slightly more expensive than Spain.
    But rather than raise money to support a collapsing economy, Zambia’s money is going to be used for real economic development and growth. That is something rare in the old developed world.”

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  28. “The proceeds are to be invested in developing energy, railways, roads and other infrastructure projects under Zambia’s so-called sixth national development plan. Analysts cite Zambia as a “good frontier story”. A play on commodities supported by a recovering copper prices. Copper accounts for one-third of Zambia’s economy and 85% of its exports. In stark contrast to the euro-zone’s sluggish growth at best, Zambia’s economy has grown from 6.4% to 7.7% over the 2009 to 2012 period and enjoyed falling inflation, low debt and a stable balance of payments. And despite the pitfalls of possible mining reforms and nationalizations, the rare opportunity to invest in a sovereign growth story plus the ever present hunt for yield, is likely to make this deal fly.” Source: WSJ

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  29. iwe Mushota akan#yo kobe kalakushupa sana. just concentrate on doing what you know best, being layed and then promotion after. why we excited for your own infor despite that its a debt is that it can bring development if it is not abused

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  30. The money should be used prudently and I hope a proper and capable team will be put in place at Zambia railways so that it is able to pay back some of this loan. Let’s not dream of too many projects because this is only 3.7 trillion.

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  31. I reckon we are allowed to be positive. Surely if this is a continuation from previous governments we are showing a little continuity. In essence some forget that we also had massive debt written off and international community bods sitting on heads to ensure accountability of some sort with forced responsibility to even get here through the mire of ‘alternative economic choices’. Everyone who worked on this, especially the real heroes who are not politicians but number crunchers, administrators, facilitators…even coffee makers, do it for our country not self glory :)

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  32. Some muppets above can never be satisfied as long as it is PF ruling! I wish such people could have their own blog called unreasonable hatred! Well done PF for taking the bull by the horns and getting money that has no strings attached and can be invested only as the government and the people of Zambia deem fit. It is good foresight as your predecessor would have not wanted you to succeed but they also deserve to be told that they contributed to building the long-term international image that helped raise the US$750 million bond finances. PF should ignore all pessimists and go flat out to invest in Hydro-power generation, ZRL & roads with toll fee gates. Be like Solomon who prayed for wisdom, but also pray for understanding, knowledge, counsel, might and fear of GOD! AMEN!

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  33. It’s a shame how the PF attempts to skew headlines in their favor. It was inevitable that a country with a B+ rating asking for as little as $750m would be oversubscribed. The reason is that such a security has higher coupons because the issuer is a moderately risky institution and the coupons are likely to be high. Investors believed that the security was undervalued.
    What will be done with the funds is a key issue. We hope the government will not go on a spending spree but on an investment undertaking to prolong the benefit thereof.

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  34. Viva PF the MMD and Rupiah would have uesd this money for their own bennefits and helping their families and girlfriends NGO’S. We need to revamp our industries to streghnthen our economy and create more jobs also make new roads not rehabitating same roads like the previous govt. VIVA PF VIVA SATA! sorry MMD its PF time now, poor HH you are not good for politics.

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  35. Nationalisation at face value is normally a no no. However, in the recent past western governments have gone down this path during the Banking crisis that has engulfed the US and Europe. A fine example in the UK is Northern Rock and Royal Bank of Scotlant and then in the States the car motor giants were bailed out (recapitalised) by their respective governments until when they are profitable again to repay these public funds. If Zambia Railways or Nitrogen Chemicals of Zambia were properly managed and were profitable again, they would be privatised with the government of the day making money out of the sales. Unfortunately, going by past experience, parastatals have historical been viewed by successive governments as their private businesses whose resources they can raid at will.

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    • FAST you also left out the facts that with this nationalisation governments have grown bigger with bigger expenditures and huge debt has resulted crippling them. the most troubled countries in eurozone are the one whose government runs paratatals and business in general. these chaps that have nationalized are already getting out or are planning for get out. USA is an example.so its not true that it a policy that government or people want. 

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  36. Very good development. Develop the infrastructure, improve from single tracking to double tracking, fuel efficient/electric engines Lease engines,and maintenace equipment directly from General electric through GE capital a subsidiary of general electrict. Make sure to use proven consulting firms that have done this before. Rail freight is lucrative if well handled and will be a source of job creation for both construction, maintenance and operations.

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  37. that’s a brave decision the G.R.Z have made. job well done. But it’s one thing to reposes and watch and it’s another making it more viable and productive. We just need to come up with a  capable team to manage the system. 

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  38. I’m glad that the government is directing some of the funds to Kafue Lower Power Station. as this is where the solution lays for our energy deficiency problems and eradication of the much dreaded load-shedding scheme. I hope ZESCO will now think twice about increasing tariffs an opt to raise funding from other ventures like LUSE. 
    I have reservation about $120m going to ZRL as this is just a drop in the ocean and does not solve the actual problem of neglect, yes the folk in Kabwe will be happy but it won’t solve the ZRL’s problems in the long term as the line needs to rehabilitated or rebuild this liken to buying state of the art cameras for ZNBC yet relying on the selfsame analogue signal to transmit the picture quality will certainly be compromised.    

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  39. Capital injection in ZR YES, to preserve roads and bring down cost of transportation. For Hydropower YES, we have a growing power deficit. Capital injection in NCZ NO. it is a pitiless bottom and bottomless pit. We are too far inland to be compTIetive in fertilser manufacture. Cannot compete with the likes of Sasol on Durban coast. Maybe for manufacture of sulpuhric acid for the mines and Ammonium Nitrate for explosives I see a slight glimmer of business sense in NCZ.Otherwise tread carefully

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  40. Bwana Chikwanda, this is not 1964. What kind of national budgeting is this? While you are at it, how much will your Apollo milk by way of phantom projects? The next govt must undertake a forensic audit of this money so that these UPPs can rot in jail. Meantime, I off to Lusaka to claim my share of this loot!

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  41. I FEEL THIS MONEY SHOULD GO TO MASSIVE HYDRO ELECTRICITY DAM CONSTRUCTIONS IN LUAPULA PROVINCE, ROAD CONSTRUCTION, RE-CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNISING OF TRAIN STATIONS, ETC. WHAT IS THE MAIN PROBLEM IN ZAMBIA AS AT NOW IS POWER (ELECTRICITY), FOLLOWED BY OTHER THINGS. WITHOUT POWER THE COUNTRY WILL NEVER SEE ANY DEVELOPMENT. DO NOT POSTPONE SOLVING POWER PROBLEMS.

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  42. Paul says ” I planted , Appolos watered and God gave the increase. Viva MMD , RB and your team. “VIVA” PF. The MMD started this programe and I believe they had a plan based on the US$ 500m bond. My VIVA for PF is in inverted commas for a reason or reasons coz i question whether they had a plan for ZRL from this money. What if this did not go through? To me it shows that this injection under PF is not fully understood and most likely it will go down the drain. PF wont die if they consulted the archtects of the same people in the MMD especially those who were in the Ministry of Finance & National Planning, Comerce . ZRL is a drain looking at the equipment that has remained of it and looking at ABC’s allocation (US$120m) I wonder whether that was really from technocrats. NCZ again!

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    • DET OFF YOUR HIGH HORSE.ZAMBIA IS POOR. u as a person are rich. use the same criterion on a country. 

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  43. GOOD MOVE.BUT FIND A BIG CONTRACTOR TO DO THE TRACK RE-TRACKING WORKS FOR ONLY 1 AND HALF YEARS.CHOOSE INDEPENDENT PROJECT MANAGER,TO PLAN,MONITOR,EVALUATE, THE MONIES AND PROCESS OF THE PROJECT.HANDOVER SHOULD BE DONE WHEN A COMPLETE AUDIT IS DONE.

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  44. VIVA MMD you see you never worked for nothing, we can see fruits of your labour. Good MMD God bless MMD and your leaders. 2016 MMD continued to work for mother Zambia. BOOOUUUNNCCEEEEE BAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACK to POOOOOWWEEER you know how you do it and how to do it. GOD BLESS YOU ONCE AGAINNNNNE!

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  45. Leeeeeeeeevy AND Ruuuuuuuuuuuuuupiah God bless you great leaders and Nervers Muuuumba good man of God gooooooooo for it.
    VIVA MMD you see you never worked for nothing, we can see fruits of your labour. Good MMD God bless MMD and your leaders. 2016 MMD continued to work for mother Zambia. BOOOUUUNNCCEEEEE BAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAACK to POOOOOWWEEER you know how you do it and how to do it. GOD BLESS YOU ONCE AGAINNNNNE!

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  46. Congrats, this is a positive development. However, I have reservations about the US$120 million for ZRL. How will this small amount overhaul the dilapidated rail line from Chililabombwe to Livingstone, not forgetting the Mulobezi line (which we often forget is under ZRL)?
    Further, a chain is only as strong as its weakest link…the connections to Dar through Tazara and to Durban and Beira through Zimbabwe means that we are connected to very weak links. The Zimbo’s railways is in serious problems and no better than ZRL. Uncle Bob cant sell a even a US$1 million bond to raise funds for his railways. As for Tazara, it’s been technically bankrupt for a very long time and there appears no real solution is in sight. Have these factors been seriously taken into account by Chikwanda and co?

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  47. There is alot of mis management in parastatals. This happened in ZRL b4. Nw $120m for ZRL is nothing. ZRL needs a serious investor or a specific loan for proper re -railing of a new track with concrete slippers frm livingstone to chililabombwe. A good track is required first if we are move certain tonnages off our roads. Mr Chikwanda watch over ZRL ,accountability must be paramount. It is still viable and able to make huge profits. $750 eurobond must be injected in profitable projects. ZRA has the capacity to raise this money and pay it off, if only corruption is mininised among officers.

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  48. Find contractors who have records for doing durable and quality works. Not for Zambia contracts by some country I know from the East, especially, whose works need constant and continuous attention, maintenance and repair every year, every season. TEECAAKWESHA!

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