9.5 C
Alba Iulia
Saturday, April 17, 2021

Government begins demolition of illegal houses

Headlines Government begins demolition of illegal houses

zambiahead.jpgThe government has begun demolishing illegal houses in Lusaka, in a move aimed at ending corruption in the distribution of plots of land, police said.

Officials say the demolitions will gradually be rolled out across the country, raising the prospect of millions of people being made homeless.

Bonny Kapeso said police moved in to raze houses in an exercise which started late on Friday night and ended in the early hours of Saturday.

“We carried out a successful operation with the council and a number of houses were demolished. The police officers were involved in the operation in order to safeguard the security of council officers,” Kapeso told Reuters.

Witnesses said council officers using sledgehammers knocked down about 100 houses under construction in an area where some people had seized plots without official approval.

Most of the houses were still under construction and not yet inhabited.

“We saw about 450 state police officers and policemen from the Lusaka City Council destroying houses from about midnight on Friday until the early hours of today,” one resident told Reuters news agency.

Opposition parties often accuse senior members of the ruling MMD party of taking bribes from people in exchange for land. Opposition Patriotic Front (PF) party leader Michael Sata, pledged to demolish illegal houses to pave the way for new ones during last year’s presidential elections.

President Levy Mwanawasa sacked Gladys Nyirongo, the lands minister, two weeks ago, after accusing her of handing out plots of land to her family. Nyirongo, who is currently under investigation, has declined to comment on the matter, saying she wanted investigations to be concluded first.

Several senior ministry officials have been suspended on corruption charges involving land distribution.

The government has said it intends to destroy all illegal and unplanned homes and shops, starting in Lusaka where many impoverished informal settlements infringe on roads, railways, power lines and government-owned land.

Henry Nachina, co-ordinator of the Land Alliance, a Zambian non-governmental organisation that deals with land issues, told The Associated Press earlier this week that the situation was “scary” because people do not know how the government is going to proceed.

Nachina said he was hopeful that the government would avoid a “Zimbabwe-type” demolition where thousands are made homeless.

Nachina said that the government should not be punishing the people who build illegal settlements, but rather target politicians who hand out land to supporters without following city guidelines.

“We know very well the reason why we have illegal structures: Because local politicians are the ones who are giving that land illegally,” he said.

However, a government official, speaking on condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the issue, told The Associated Press that “the (demolition) process is not meant to be done indiscriminately,” and added that in some cases the government may allow families living in illegal housing to remain in their homes, while “formalising” the arrangements.

“It’s nothing like what happened in Zimbabwe,” the official added.

41 COMMENTS

  1. Does government have plans on how the affected citizens are going to survive. The trouble is that those same leaders who are making such decisions have more than enough land to accomodate the poor people of our society. Can any of those people deny that they do not have a number of plots. The poor are always being victimized in the name of restoring order. Why not build houses for the poor people and shift them before you go at night to inconvinience their lives. Zambia is not for the cabinet members alone, it belongs to all of us and that is why when such things happen, they should call for a referendum to hear peoples views. In as much as we are trying to improve the lives of our people, we should think of the consequences before doing anything. How many houses has Mwanawasa government built other than focusing on building him one which he doesnt need because he has a lot of houses. Why should we spend so much on a few individuals when the majority are suffering? long live Zambia.

  2. It doesn’t make any sense at all and it is very inhuman. Where was the so called goverment when these illegal stracture were being put up. Why should the govement wait up to this time and never prevented the people from building before they could even start?Somebody was sleeping and was not doing his job. Why should the goverment pull down peoples houses at the peak of rain season? Has the goverment got a solution of how it will provide alternative accomodation to these people?This is not different from a national disaster and if at all there is a goverment it should come to their aid becauseit is not their problem but a problem of a sleepy gorvement.Zambia is for every Zambian and not just for the peolple with dollar accounts.These are symptoms of an incompetent govermet which has failed to come up with better solutiom of how it will take care of its people. What problem are they solving by put these family in a vulnerable situation?
    Shame on you silvia good for nothing minister.

  3. If it was during election time non of you politicians would have pointed his or her evil finger at these people but now that they have given you their vote you just look upon them as objects not as humans. Dont forget that these are the some people who elavated you to be where you are now, even claim to get a $53000 car. God is watching us.

  4. This really a tricky one. I agree that govt needs to get rid of these slams or whatever you call them. However, my issue is that people should be compensated. They applied for their land to the people who were in authority and that makes their land legally acquired. Otherwise where did you expect them to apply for land other than the ministry of lands? Wait till we have a corrupt free govt?

    Government should not punish the people because it had incompetent and corrupt people it trusted with the distribution of land. They should punish the corrupt officials. I would even go further to say that the money to compensate the victims of the demolished houses should come out of the pockets of these corrupt individuals so that know that corruption does not pay. Freeze their assets, auction them. If not enough, send them to jail with hard labour to farm tomatoes & vegetables , sell them at Soweto market and then take the proceeds to victims of the mess they have created.

  5. it’s good project.. let them bring order to the city.
    i wish they could destroy all shant compounds like chawama and others. let the gout build flats, this will help save land and create space hence bring order
    to lusaka.
    zambian, chikoshi banda.
    L.A USA.

  6. This move is really disturbing the peace of our fellow people, surely the so called Government will just move on to pull down those infrastructures that somebody put in all they had to build? This is not the what the citizens were asking for when they said they needed prove that the Government is not down for corruption!! The Government should start by cleaning themselfs first!
    PLEASE HAVE MERCY FOR THAT POOR ZAMBIAN CITIZEN!!
    Ras Mugi
    Russia

  7. It is so irrational for someone to support this move as a good project. Such kind of thinking is tantamount to witchcraft. We all want to see some sanity in the city but this has to be done with a lot of consideration and reasoning because we are dealing with lives of people.The goverment should admit that it has its own flaws in all this mess because if really there was a goverment which cares this mess would not be there. So people should not start supporting the goverment for the things the goverment have no remedy. who said this goverment will build better stracture once these houses for the poor fellows are pulled down? This is a goverment with no housing policy. This is no matter laughter and any thinking person should not just become exited and start comment on this issue with no concrete base. You need to put yourself in the position of the affected people and imagine if it were you. Would you imagine leaving with no shelter at the peak of the rain season!? Be reasonable.

  8. The govt is faced with a tricky situation, juts last yer they were campainging in these same areas for votes from these people promising to improve the areas by providing water good sanitation etc. Today they are illegal structures, Wow how easliy we forget. Another concern is that if we do not stop the illegal occupation of land in Zambia we are doomed. If one went through Lusaka, houses are marshrooming everywhere, just the other day we were reading that squatters killed a German man and occupied his farm. Killed him because he refused to allow them on his land. Is that what we want for Zambia? As much as the poor need land but the manner in which they get it should be through legal means and not illegal means. These people know they are illegal occupants but deicde to stay on the land. For sanity, let govt arrange alternative places for people but YES we need to stop the illegal occupation of land.

  9. The illegal structures that needed urgent attention are right in town centre and kamwala area. Without first punishing the politicians that allocated the land this move is unfair.

  10. Come on now, people! how can we as zambians possibly feel its right to raze people’s homes to the ground??? It is a known fact thet alot of these properties have been “sold” and so-called titledeeds for some of them issued. i find it ludicrous that the rich can illegally acquire property in massmedia, lusaka east, and other upcoming” affluent areas” and not be punished, and then punish hardworking honest zambians for trying to sow their roots in lusaka. if these people had been allocated land in the first place, this problem wouldnt have arrisen. The government need to sort out its land distribution policy, and also ensure that it weeds out all those corrupt officals at the councils and lands ministry.No one would have dared to make this move just before the elections. land issue has become a political bargaining chip! Cleaning up the city is a great idea, but people must be duely compensated, as they have put all their savings into these homes. lets be humane!

  11. OUR CITIES, PERI-URBAN AREAS & VILLAGES HAVE BEEN RAPED BEYOND REDEMPTION
    WHAT DO YOU EXPECT FROM A COUNTRY THAT HAS LAWS – TOWN PLAANING, SURVEYING & DEVELOPMENT CONTROL STRUCTURES ETC – THOUSANDS OF TOWN PLANNERS, ARCHITECTS, ENGINEERS, QUANTITY SURVEYORS, PROPERTY VALUERS, LAND SURVEYORS ETC BUT THIS SICK COUNTRY THINKS A WARD CHAIRMAN OR SOME *****S WITH NO CLUE OF LAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES & CONTROLS ARE BEST SUITED TO MANAGE THEIR LAND RESOURCES. CRIMINAL HAVE GIVEN WHAT A COUNTRY!. I SOMETIMES FEEL ASHAMED BECAUSE KK,FRED THE CRIMINAL,LEVY, SATA & COMPANY HAVE ALL INCREMENTALLY MESSED UP OUR COUNTRY BEYOND REDEMPTION!!!!

  12. Illegal is illegal thats all. When somethingi s worng lets deal with. it is worng to say that what the government is doing is bad when they are trying to stop illegal allocation of land. how many of us have witnessed corruption but have done nothing about it? When one gets up to make the situation right, we get up and shout that govt is wrong. if the rich have benefited through illegal means lets report them, only if the system fails to do anythig can we say that the system is not fair. recently we all read that the minister of lands was fired and investigations are on going, the Ocommissioner of lands is on suspension investigations on going. So if we know othere lets point them out. But we cannot allow a situation where lawlessness takes over in the land.

  13. Where was the government when the people were constructing those “Ilegal” houses? Does the government has a plan for realocating the displaced?

  14. BRING THE HOUSES DOWN, IT’S A VERY GOOD PROJECT.
    GOVT SHOULD BE SUPPORTED AT COSTS. LETS BRING ORDER TO THE CITY.DON;T JUST GET EMOTIONAL AND HATE GOVT, LETS SOLVE THIS PROBLEM ONCE AND FOR ALL.
    START FROM MENDEVU, ALL SHANTS TO CHAWAMA KUYA BEBELA.
    CHAWAMA, LUSAKA.

  15. To Levy Patrick Mwanawasa.

    Mr President, have you already forgotten what you were telling the people of Zambia, Lusaka in particular.Do you recall that you are on RECORD using the words of micheal sata when he sata was telling the people of Lusaka that he SATA will demolish all the illegal structures when he becomes the president of this country,do you remember that?.If icould remember your response was that the MMD Government is a caring government that woulh hardly displace its people, but now what has gone wrong Your excellency.Could you tell the entire Zambian that when you were campaining last year september 2006 there was no LAW for you to respect now that you are back to state house you have remembered the LAW and you want bring hardships on the same people who voted for you and your Government by demolishing their houses.Mr Mwanawasa you are very learnable person who can think and reason, where do you think the same people will go after you demolish their houses?.

  16. Kafula if i could ask you, If all the shanties are brought down as you have said it, where do you think people of GOD could go? Kafula if you can afford to build a decent house on a decent plot luck you and to this respect dont everyone would manage to buy a plot costing three million and above. Please dont support the government when its doing wrong things.You tolk like home affairs minister lonie shikapwasha.These are the ministers who will turn against levy mwanawasa when he leaves office in 2011.BA LEVY MWANAWASA BANTU NIBA MUSELELA KWAKABA. Look at Vernon mwaanga the he respects you that is the same way he used to respect the former president mr chiluba. So be very careful with the people sorrounding you mr mwanawasa.

  17. This is what you get when you elect Grade 7 drop-outs for MPs. Do you really think the depth of their shallow knowledge would handle the demands of economic development with a bottleneck sense. We are the people to blame because we do not make stupid fools like these to account for their actions. Why do we have City Planners if they cannot plan a city. What on earth is wrong with a black man? And I don’t mean it as an insult. We can never do anything the right way. We can afford to let these hudlums acquire vehicles for $53k but not drugs in hospitals, renovate Universities, build decent housingetc. What a great shame.

  18. Chella, the people of God as u call them can simply
    be located somewhere, as they bring down the shanties.
    just look at mendevu, my God how many people live on a 200ms land? it is this same over population that causes disease like tubercolusis to spread, we need just free land for fresh air, this is good for your health chella.If govt don’t stop these people they will soon start building in grave yards. Die a little for one zambia.
    Chawama.

  19. Ba Kafula your reasoning is so shallow and you have just expressed you mediocre type of thinking on this debate. When chella asked you where the people are going to be taken after the demolitions, which any sensible person should ask and the some question which your govement was suppose to address before they could even start this unprecedented exercise,you gave an answer which shows that your were just contributing out of exicitement.You should understand that there is always the best way of doing things.We are not animals who should do things with no remorse.If God has blessed you with a plot where you have put up your nice beautiful house its not becuse you are clever or intelligent it is just the grace of God and anything can happen to that house and then you will uderstand what it means to live without a house. You are entitled to your own opinion but watch your sentiments when you are dealing with peoples lives.

  20. Kafula, i think you should be a great satanist here on earth who cant reason even a bit.Dont you think re-allocating people to another place could cost Government alot of money.You are very far from a proper human being who can let his beloved ones to be homeless in a cruel manner.Ask yourself how many shanties do we have here in Lusaka and what is the population living in these shanties.Are you happy with the condition of the street kids in Lusaka,dont you know that the demolition of the houses can bring more street kids in Lusaka and you are happy about that.If their are allocated to another place where will they get the money to build other houses since the Government that you are supporting says no compensation.If almighty GOD has blessed you just keep on praying to him and dont disgrace his people otherwise GOD will be angry with you and take away the little that he has given you because of your careless talking.

  21. u *** *** don’t think. this is a simple debate that we are suppose to contribute and not call each other names. u are acting like grade sevens.
    just like the opposition parties was fighting instead of telling the people what they will do.u are now busy attacking me instead of contributing to the debate, now i can’t blame the politicians coz of your swallow minds.u should be ashamed to zambians.lets allow common sense to prevail over emotions,this is a national issue and a have heart for my beloved country.if i was a satanist i could erased u from the face of the earth in seconds.but ask GOd to forive you and give you wisdom, to be different from the crop of leaders that we have.
    govt has money for re- allocating people.cholera, TB, Air borne disease, spread like bush fire coz of
    over crowding. lets find a lasting solution instead figthing over this web.debate wisely.i thank GOd for his blessings on me, i pray that he blesses u too in jesus na
    public health specialist.

  22. matias and mwinepabo, think before u use the name of
    GOD, and i advise to withdraw from this debate if what u can do is only try to paint me a satanist.
    may God deliver you.your mediocre words won’t stop me from raising my point. u are the same people who declared zambia a christian nation at same time stealling from the poor, u are happy seeing people living in shantis and u call me a satanist, i want sanity to all.you know there is someone worse than an enemy,that is a traitor.i can accord some degree of respect to my enemy but certainly not a traitor and that’s exactly who you are.your likes have destroyed mother zambia.

  23. Ba Kafula thanks for your response. I know that you have been provoked which is good because it is a reminder to you that you need to adjust your thinking in a right frame of mind. I wanted to sympathize with you but check your spellings and your grammer first. By the way good try I give you 2% for grammar ,3.5% for spellings and 1% for panctuations Toatl 6.5% good enough to cool down you temper.

  24. I THINK U GUYS ARE DULL, MR. KAFULA IS TRYING TO RAISE
    HIS POINTS, WHY ARE U GUYS TRYING TO INSULT OR USE BAD COMMENTS. GET BACK TO THE DEBATE AND DEBAT WISELY.FROM
    POINT OF PUBLIC HEALTH KAFULA IS RIGHT. AM ON THE GROUND MYSELF, I SEE HOW PEOPLE GET INFECTED EASILY.
    SO DEBATE. MWINEPABO GO BACK TO SCHOOL OR GO AND LEARN SOME MANNERS FROM YOUR MOTHER.IF U DON’T WANT TO DEBATE,STAY AWAY FROM THIS SITE.HOW DARE U CALL SOMEBODY A SATANIST?AM SURE U A CHEAP ENGLISH TEACHER IN ONE OF PRIVTE SCHOOLS BUILD ON ILLEGAL LAND. THE GOVT IS COMING FOR YOU.

  25. chiluba is a very good speaker.he is english and dressing is execellent. He is now on trail coz he failed zambians, zambians are living in shaties which mwanawasa is calling illegal coz of him.Mwinepabo u are product of chiluba’s mind. u have a chicken mind..
    i guess your mediocre and toilet mind won’t stop ba kafula from giving his thouths.infact check your english before checking kafula’s. i can’t even grade your english, what tribe are you?true u are dull teacher of english at some illegal house of yours which will be gone in days time.Devil, satan .debate
    and don’t just find cause to attack kafula. people want to see nice views and not your toilet mind.
    kitwe.

  26. Dear learnable Men and Women,

    Please dont insult each other on this very important debate instead you bring out issues pertaining to the welfair of our people who are greatly affected to the destraction of their houses. What you should know is that whether illegal or legal someone might have spent a lot of money to build those houses. Nevertheless,let us debate constractively in order for our readers to get sense outof it and not insults.Someone will agree with me that 75% in Lusaka live in illegal plots.May be someone could help the Government to come up with a good resetlement work plan how best the government could re-allocate the people else where before embarking on the demolition excise. These people we want to displace now, you and me shall need them in 2011.The problem with us people is that we like fighting oneanother.Just recall how sata destoyed houses in chilenje and they were taken to show grounds, please do you want the same thing to happen again. Please think twice.

  27. I really mystified by this behaviour. You guys are supposed to articulate issues that can bring home a sound policy for our illiterate government. Who cares about grammar or punctuation. The purpose of language is to communicate. If this is how we the youth of this great country will debate issues, I fear for the future of this country and that of my children. We need intelligent minds like yours to influence our gov. in making policy decisions that will enhance and sustain development. No wonder so many years after independence we still call ourselves a developing nation. When are we ever going to achieve the merest sense of development? Fellow youths, please be more critical of this gov. and don’t use this medium to insult each other. No wonder our Parliamentarians are so dull. LESA TWA FWENI

  28. thanks for your support, people may misjudge me or anything but really, my main worry is over population in small parts of lusaka a potential hazard to diseaseS.govt i mean the donors funding the zambian govt are spending alot of money in trying to curb outbreaks of diseases like cholera. TB is key disease that spreads like bush fire. most clinics in lusaka are full of TB patients, AIDS.. too many people in one place is the cause.PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE.
    SO LETS TRY TO PREVENT THESE DISEASES BY TRYING TO FIND A LASTING SOLUTION TO THIS PROBLEM OF LAND. LEVY SHOULD IMMEDIATELY FIND A GOOD PLACE FOR THE DISPLACED CITIZENS. THEY HAVE MONEY TO DO ALL THIS.REMEMBER RICHARD BUILT OAU VILLAGE IN DAYS. AM SURE GOVT CAN BUILD MANY OF THOSE FLATS, IF REALLY THEY MEAN WELL FOR THE PEOPLE.WE HAVE OIL AND GAS, ALL GOVT IS DOIN IS SPENDING MONEY ON EXPERTS.MAYBE WE NEED TO BE COLONISED AGAIN.WE HAVE MONEY TO DO ALL THIS HOUSING FOR THAT POOR CHILD.RISE ZED.

  29. Dear Kafula,

    I thank you so much for coming to your senses, you know we need to develop this country by helping our government by coming up with good policies that can stand the taste of good time. Mr kafula, if i would ask you my lovely dear,yes i totaly agree with you by saying that in shanties breed alot of diseases such as TB and AIDS.Are you telling that in places like Avondale,Kabulonga, Chelston,Ibex, Olipya and other nice places there are no TB and AIDS.Please Zambians let us aticulate real issues which affect our people.Me i have travelled and i have never come across a country which has no shanty compound here on earth i beg to be corrected on this one.Mr/Madam Kafula whether you stay in Kabulonga or kamanga compound, you can never run away from diseases such as TB,AIDS and cholera.

  30. Bwalya, what Kafula is trying to say is that wanton overpopulation is a leading effect in transmitting such diseases. It is not the cause, however. Kafula is right when he brings up these concerns. Yes, every country has slums, but the problem with our country is that we create these slums right in the heart the business District. We can create this so-called cheap housing in the outskirts of the city. Look at Kamwala Market and the surrounding area for instance, we need a sound policy to empower and fund City Planners. That way we will hold them accountable for such situations. We also need the political will from our representatives. It will take intelligent minds like you guys to change things for the better. Another example is Mandevu. This compound has been created right next to a busy highway. Don’t you see the dangers of doing that. We can create our own destiny by being diligent and proactive when it comes to planning.Why should we accept mediocrity?

  31. continued.

    I agree with the other ideas that it is barbaric to raze down structures and make these people homeless. Here is my take on this. The problem is with our leadership. Every President that occupies office wants to rush into achieving a set goal. You cannot possibly achieve everything in a 5-10 year period. What we need is to set development goals that will span over the distant future. Let a gov. start a program whose goals will be achieved by future generations. For instance, the razing of these structures should be done in piecemeal over a period of time with well set out alternatives for the displaced. What we have done is simply shift a problem from one area to another. The concentration of business activity in the central district of Lusaka is also a factor. Every person wants to live closer to the city as possible so potential customers can access them easily. We need to decentralise business activity.

    What do you guys think??

  32. B’oi kwena chishinka walanda. I think the houses in Kalikiliki were even manshons compared to the Misisi and Chibolya ones. Why have they left Misisi and Chibolya which are just a stone throw from the city center. Mr V.J Mwaanga tell me, maybe you have left them for fundrising .i.e when donors look at them they will feel pity and donate money which goes in ya pocket or tourist attration and you thought Kalikiliki was a competitor shanties. You guyz the MPs, you will find that one person has land more than the whole space which was occupied by 100 Kalikiliki houses. Why are you taking the LITTLE there having, and not from your 500 hectres. To be poor it’s not a sin LESA akamikanda. Your Gov have even fail to construct any flat even for street kids. Why are you happy when other suffers? I grew up in the getto it sweet know out. You guyz in the getto contue working and praying God will reward you like he did to me. OUR GOD IS A GOD OF WONDERS.

  33. am happy that u now agree with me.as a public health specialist, i was in nigeria the other day, they had the same problem.this how they solved it;
    they entered a scheme with people whose houses were demolished,as in they had to pay at least 1O$ a month for the construction of housing units.imagine the all country paying 45000 kwacha a month; in private or public employment. we can build nice houses for our children’s children.but of course corruption can hinder progress!if we are now paying ZNBC with unimproved programmes,why can’t we pay for housing?
    the people can contribute a bit and the govt as a major player can do it’s part.we need to change things ladies and gentglemen.somebody get Mwanawasa to check this comments.thank u.

  34. My fellow patriots, Be realistic. We all want a clean environment. All the illegal structures in the country should be demolished. But How do you explain Illegal Structures where the government is collecting council levy or have taken Electricity to these area’s.i.e. Zesco etc. I believe once Government agencies have supplied utilities, there is some recognition from the government itself that the structures are legal. Else, why would the Government give utilities to illegal structures. C’mon Wake Up,let’s NOT bring Chiluba back to wake our minds UP.

  35. It is good idea to have clean cities ,but it is criminal for the authorities to give plots to poor citizens only to be demolished by the so called legal chaps.In Zambia only the poor built illegal structures and the rich demolish them.
    The rich do not build illegal structures which the poor can demolish. The issue of the illegal structure in Ndola called ZOT in skyways was condemned by ECZ but it is operation because it belongs to the rich.
    If it belonged to a poor Zambian,it would have been demolished.

    Let us be consistent with what we do in zambia.

    thosewe should also

  36. hey
    people this is the same thing which happened in zimbabwe,illegal houses were demolished ,and people suffered in zimbabwe ,and l think mwanawasa shld think first and consider the he is going to remove were are they going to go ,l think he shld warn them first.

  37. There is only one realistic way forward although it is painful, it is a very complicated programmed but emotions should be put aside. these illigal stractures should be removed!! i would like to believe that the government is doing everything possible to relocate people, the problem is people would like to use this situation to aquire legal land free of charge. mistakes have been made but correcting them now is better than leaving the situation as it is. The world is becoming more modern every day, the goal is to have a decent zambia with order and proper plannig as much as possible, this will only be better for zambia in the long run. whose that w***er asking if there is no diseases in surbabs, he cant get it? diseaese can found everywhere but overcrouded and unplanned places make it difficult to control or eradicate disease.

  38. its a coool site with valuable info, i am in Czech rep, but still get informed with what is happening back home,

    Lee,
    University of South Bohemia,
    faculty of Socail and health Studies,

  39. Wapya munzi! Please do it fast so that PF and UPND can blime the GRZ and GRZ can blane the later-Politics again and again( NAFUTI NAFUTI DONT KUBEBA) Cadres have gon on rampage issuing plots.

Comments are closed.

- Advertisement -
Loading...

Latest News

Third wave of COVID-19 more lethal – Chanda

Minister of Health Jonas Chanda has advised the general public to continue with the laid down COVID-19...

More Articles In This Category

- Advertisement -