Friday, February 23, 2024

1964 agreement,2012 BNC pushed off dialogue table


King Mwanawina III, with the Queen Mother during her visit to Barotseland in 1960

AUTHOR: Media Editor, Barotseland Post

The people of Barotseland will be shocked to discover that the so-called BRE/GRZ dialogue on Barotseland Agreement 1964 (BA’64) will, in fact, be used to completely wipe out both the 1964 agreement, which gives the region semi-autonomy and the 2012 Barotse National Council (BNC) resolutions for Barotseland independence.

An inquiry into the matter has revealed that neither RESTORATION of the 1964 agreement nor INDEPENDENCE will be considered. Instead, the dialogue will be used to officially ‘bury’ the old agreement ‘together’ so that Zambia will no longer be blamed for having annulled it unilaterally!

In the past, the Zambian government has been blamed for abrogating the Barotseland Agreement 1964 without consulting the Litunga and the people of Barotseland, but now, the inquiry has uncovered the shocking government plan to use this dialogue to officially put that perception to rest, and also forge a new deal which does not threaten the unitary state of Zambia!

However, the proposed new deal will in reality completely wipe out any hopes for either internal or external autonomy for Barotseland as the only beneficiaries under it are the Litunga and the BRE! The Litunga will be conferred a superficial title of King, while all Chiefs, BRE Senior and Area Induna across all districts will be put on a government payroll.

“The 1964 agreement has been considered problematic because political activists could use it to claim self-determination in future. The proposed deal, therefore, will officially show that the Litunga, BRE and the people have now all agreed to put away the 1964 agreement and enter into a new deal which does not talk of self-determination or autonomy!”

With the monetary promises, the inquiry has revealed that the entire BRE structure, including the Royal Highnesses in the districts, have been convinced to support the so-called dialogue process, although some of them were made to believe that the dialogue process would result into the restoration of the 1964 agreement, which if implemented completely, would be somewhat beneficial to Barotseland. However, when the process has achieved its real plans, the entire BRE and their Royal Highnesses will come-out as complete sellouts who have abandoned their people and mortgaged Barotseland on account of monetary promises from the central government!

The inquiry has further revealed that Lubosi Imwiko II is ready to co-operate, as long as he will officially assume the title of ‘King’ in Zambia. What he does not realize, however, is that he will not, in fact, be the only one conferred that title, but like in South Africa, all the Paramount Chiefs in Zambia will eventually be called ‘kings’ without real executive or jurisdictional powers. The only difference is that Lubosi Imwiko II has been deceived to betray Barotseland, where he is King indeed, in exchange for a superficial kingly title in Zambia which other Paramount Chiefs will also be given for free!

The inquiry has further revealed that the invitation of Gawa Undi of the Chewa people in Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to officiate at the 2018 Kuomboka was, in fact, part of this new government strategy to emphasize that Barotseland is still part of Zambia! Soon, the Litunga will also be compelled to officiate at other Zambian traditional ceremonies to emphasize the ‘One Zambia One nation’ spirit and also show fraternity with other equals. The Gawa Undi’s presence at Kuomboka would also show the international community that the Litunga and the region are integrated within Zambia.

Most shocking, however, is how the government and the BRE have planned to entirely exclude the people out of this dialogue while showing the international community that the process has been broadly representative!

When announcing the planned dialogue, the BRE said that the Dialogue Council would comprise representatives of communities, Barotse political activists, the institutions of traditional governance structures and specific nominees of the BRE, to aid the BRE in managing the negotiation with the Government of Zambia.

Although the main independence advocates, Linyungandambo and the Barotse National Freedom Alliance (BNFA), have already declared their unwillingness to participate in the sham of a dialogue, the inquiry has revealed that they were never really to be involved in the first place!

Many expected that the plan to involve independence activists would see the immediate release of Afumba Mombotwa, the Linyungandambo leader currently serving a ten-year prison sentence in Zambia for having taken an oath of office as head of a transitional Barotseland Government, to take part in the dialogue. The inquiry has, however, revealed that the BRE and Lubosi Imwiko II have considered releasing Afumba and others now counterproductive to the planned ‘dialogue’ as they would always insist on carrying out the wishes of the people voiced through the 2012 BNC. So, their release should only be considered after the dialogue!

After all, Afumba Mombotwa, Likando Pelekelo and Inambao Kalima are in jail today for implementing the 2012 popular BNC resolutions!

Clement W Sinyinda, leader of the BNFA, has also been excluded from the dialogue process for similar reasons.

However, to show Barotse political activists participation, Mutungulu Wanga of MOREBA (Movement for the Restoration of Barotseland Agreement) and Nyambe Namushi of Barotse Freedom Movement (BFM), have been enlisted to lead and represent all Barotse political activists.

Some Barotse activists will be promised jobs in the Public and Foreign Services or investment capital for their co-operation.

Although the enlisted individuals do not actually represent Barotse independence movements, their respective organizations, MOREBA and BFM, are considered part of the BNFA which fronts itself as an alliance or umbrella body for all Barotseland independence movements! In fact, both Mutungulu Wanga and Nyambe Namushi lost their elective positions in BNFA leadership at a general conference last year, which they later rubbished as illegal, and have since continued to operate as members of the BNFA Executive Committee!

So, whether their BNFA membership is disputed or bona fide, the two will represent all Barotse political activists under the BNFA banner.

However, the BNFA is only an alliance of willing Barotse groupings, hence, some like the Linyungandambo, who were unwilling to join BNFA from inception, are actually not BNFA members!

Although many Barotse people prefer independence to dialogue on restoration, the government feels confident pursuing it because independence activists have not put up any noticeable revolt against Lubosi Imwiko II and the BRE for agreeing to talk with the Zambian government over the dead 1964 agreement! The government is also happy that generally urban Lozi people are actually looking forward to the dialogue, hoping that it will bring the Barotseland Agreement saga to an amicable end!

“The BRE and the Litunga are simply not afraid of the people currently!”

Neither are they expecting any revolt! A splendid Kuomboka would make people very happy with the Litunga and the BRE! In fact, the ceremony this year was to be so enchanting to erase any evidence of dissension in the region. Thousands would be transported to Kuomboka from across the region at government’s expense through the District Commissioners!

The inquiry has further clarified that there is no separate parliament, treasury, courts, police or army for Barotseland as some Lozi naively believed! In fact, there is no devolution of power at all! Barotseland will still be under the central government in Lusaka. Lubosi Imwiko will be superficial King; his appointed (not elected) Ngambela will be Prime Minister, simply to replace Zambia’s Provincial Minister, with jurisdiction limited to the region only! Government officials, Permanent Secretaries and District Commissioners in the region will report to him while he will report to the Litunga.

The King’s domain or boundary is to be undefined in the proposed deal! He may actually be a king in name and title only, but without territorial jurisdiction! Lubosi Imwiko II is accordingly happy with this status as it officially puts him far above his subjects under the protection of the Zambian army and police, who will also brief him regularly!

The parliamentarians will represent their electorates at the dialogue as people’s representatives. Their participation will form democratic semblance to appease the international community!

Since the proposed deal does not threaten the Zambian state, and that all the members of parliament in Barotseland form part of Zambia’s opposition UPND, the dialogue outcomes would easily pass in parliament or may be implemented through a government Statutory Instrument (SI).

“The defunct 1964 agreement is considered a liberating agreement dreaded by the Zambian government!”

Therefore, no government would ever honor it. So, the government now wishes to negotiate a new arrangement which they can practically honor. They will lure Lubosi Imwiko with the meaningless title and BRE with money, while the people will get absolutely nothing besides the name Barotseland!

The 2012 BNC resolutions will not even be under discussion as they are considered illegal and unbinding!

With all the Senior chiefs, sub-chiefs, BRE Indunas, Parliamentarians, Barotse political activists and Zambian government representatives participating in the dialogue, it will be assumed that the process was consultative enough to deceive the international community!

Once the dialogue has concluded, the Zambian army and police will protect the Litunga and ruthlessly deal with anyone heard or seen advocating Barotseland self-determination again! These will be treated as trouble-makers going against the wishes of the majority, as concluded in the dialogue! This dialogue will be considered more binding than the supreme Barotse National Council (BNC) which draws the participation of all Barotse up to the family and village level!

“Lubosi Imwiko II does not want self-determination because he does not want to share power with his people,” the inquiry has observed.

And with only a handful of Induna supporting self-determination, and some Senior Indunas ignorantly hoping for the restoration of the 1964 agreement, the proposed dialogue is likely to be rushed to successfully conclude by the end of June this year!

The current docility of the independence activists in BNFA and Linyungandambo has presented a good opportunity for the implementation of the new government strategy! Therefore, Barotseland will be systematically annihilated, unless the proposed dialogue strategy is blocked by the people!

Source:Barotse Post


  1. Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

    Sounds like a corrupt sketch of the PF with Chanda’s name written all over it. One thing is for sure: you can never resolve the BA’64 using coercive tactics, force or corrupt underhanded tactics. The issue is bigger than any of these shrouded politicians and their partner in crime, the current Litunga. Barotseland, was always a self-ruled Kingdom long before the ancestors of these corrupt people were headlessly chasing monkeys in the bushes. So no amount of corruption will erase that history. Trust me on this!

    • BA 64 provides for a Federal Zambia. With 20 million people of diverse background, this could help our country be united. It’s what all provinces want, decentralization. Barotseland is just the start

  2. This agreement will never be discussed so long as that man in picture with his hand me down colonial master’s garment is off GRZ payroll…they are corrupt and sell outs…ask him why he wears that uniform!!

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      Hey Jay Jay, what did you want him to wear mate? I could ask you why you are in the UK, why you speak English, why you write on a computer, why you even wear pants and underwear? The truth almost everything an African does, or wears is borrowed (apart from corruption and poverty of course). Our schools, so called democracy, everything. So get real mate and look in the mirror.

      FYI, Barotseland was never colonized. It was a protectorate unlike the rest of Rhodesia. That uniform by the Litunga was gifted to him by the Queen as a gift and symbol of friendship. Look at the picture, they are ‘equals’ and this was at a time of slavery and segregation, when a person of color could not even the same shop with a white person, let alone walking next to a Queen of an empire. Again get real mate!

    • These personal attacks are what makes you a child. A break down of some of your comments. …. Barotseland was never colonized. – Your answer is a theoretical. Brits did this as a calculated move. Nothing could have prevented them to directly do so if they so wished.
      … they are ‘equals’ … Your conclusion is based on a photo. If you can stand and share a photo opportunity with some one, that does not make your ‘king’ equal. Relevant examples, Shaka Zulu was much stronger, but I’ve never head Zulus a part SA, in Ehiopia, Haile Selassie was equally great, non of his people try to divide their country. It is just part of their history, so stop the non sense, go to school and get a life.

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      Mate, here we go:
      1) My answer isn’t theoretical, it is fact that both in theory and practical terms Barotseland was a British Protectorate, not a colony (check);
      2) “Brits did this as a calculated move. Nothing could have prevented them to directly do so if they so wished“… so what’s your point? You are agreeing with the ‘never colonized theory’, almost contradicting yourself there. Of course everything the British did or do is ‘calculated’ (aka ‘strategic’) (check);
      3) “Your conclusion is based on a photo“. There are documented stories to back this up, including in books that your tyranny KK never allowed to be distributed in the rest of the country for obvious reasons. But I’m glad there’s even photographic evidence to back it up. As they a picture…

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      …As they a picture says a thousand words. Have you seen slavery photos, they are a bad sight mate (check);
      4) None of the countries you mention have tried to dismiss and deny their history. It’s widely documented and explains why you know about it. But FYI Kwazulu has always retained some level of autonomy in SA since time immemorial. I don’t know much about Hailee Salesie but I know as much that he is revered and worshipped almost to a god status (check);
      5) I won’t bother responding to your last comments but FYI I lead a relatively decent life and I’m relatively decently educated so thank you very much, but no thanks (check)


  4. Africans still determined to divide themselves for selfish reasons. I don’t know any such divisions in the world that has yielded any success, examples, south Sudan, Eritrea, Biafra, (attempts Catalonia Scotland etc), . If any of you has evidence otherwise, please share it here. Instead countries have found out benefits of unit, examples, EU, USA others are crying after breaking free examples, Britain, South South Sudan etc. If I may ask, why do you people spend so much of your energy doing things that are so retrogressive to society and serve only your personal egos and non of the common goals of humanity? Remember every country and region has a history, we cannot keep talking about this non sense at the expense of educating our young people and creating a better and unitary…

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      Mate, Barotseland has been part of Zambia since 1964 and there is no success story to talk about there either. It is a failed experiment, in fact Barotseland was much more successful and richer before they joined the Union of Zambia so what are you talking about. EU and USA, your success stories examples you give have states and national governments with autonomy. Again spreading propaganda and falsehoods is part of the problem. No one is advocating disunity or secession, people are simply honour the Agreement that founded the unitary country you talk about.

      But even with the examples you give, the point you conveniently left out is that the people of those countries were ‘allowed’ to determine their own destiny which is their natural human right… success or not. And we are talking…

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      …And we are talking about countries that perhaps didn’t even a legal binding agreement that formed a foundation for their union. It’s up to you to determine what is good for the people no matter how clever or powerful… the reasons the West is failing in imposing democracy and their will in the Middle East. FYI Catalonia, Scotland, Biafra have always had autonomy.

      Yes every country has a history but you know the difference? Those countries acknowledge, celebrate, embrace that history of their country. Same way ‘Independence’ is celebrated in this country. Examples South Africa apartheid, civil rights movement heroes, etc. Even Australia said ‘sorry’ to the Aboriginals and the ‘Stolen Generation’ and is a debate to recognize them in the Constitution as…

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      …and there is a debate to recognize them in the Constitution as the traditional owners of this great country. So yeah those countries don’t try to wipeout, bury, suppress, subjugate their history the way this country has tried with BA’64, KK even banned the subject in schools, and your kind dismiss it with contempt as n0nsense… you can try to dismiss all you like but it won’t go away. History is history, you can’t just change it.

  5. THis Barotseland nonsense is nonsense. We are one and need to move forward as one. Divisions will just make us weaker. Lets just resolve the issues that are making us think about this divisions – equal opportunity to governance, sharing national cake equally, equal economical development in all areas of Zambia. Not when there 3 Universities in one province and no University at all in some province. This is definitely a time bomb and will let a group of start thinking like we may as well just go separate ways. Wake up damn leaders !!!

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      Mate you fail straight up when you say it is ‘nonsense’ and then go on to talk about division and unity. It’s obvious you are talking from a point of ignorance which can be understandable.

      First BA’64 is the very document that brought Northern Rhodesia and Barotseland together and unite to form today Zambia. It is not nonsense and the document doesn’t advocate for division. All it says is Barotseland and the Litunga will retain autonomy over the administering of the affairs of its people and land… same thing that happens with the States in the US or elsewhere. And Barotseland does this already to some extent.

      The problem KK tore up the document unilaterally as non-binding. The advocates are saying well if you do that then it means there’s no agreement and therefore no union…

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      ….The advocates are saying well if you do that then it means there’s no agreement and therefore no union between Zambia and Barotseland, we are on our own.

      You put a clause in the Constitution today merely to acknowledge this Agreement, Zambia won’t be torn apart or divided as the naysayers would want you believe. It will remain Zambia and most people won’t even notice the change. And in fact it would disarm the conservative hardliners advocating for Barotseland to breakaway. So there.

  6. If we want to develop our country, we should focus on real issues like education, health care, independence of the judiciary and equal enforcement of the law by police. We should create a favorable environment for both local and foreign investments. We need to strengthen all our institutions of governance. We should not be spending our time talking of this topic. It is a waste of everybody’s time and it just serves to sow the seeds of hatred and disunity among our great people. I admit there are genuine developmental issues that need to be addressed all around the country, but these are not issues that affect only NW province. We need to work together and prosper together as one Zambia one nation.

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      Hey mate, all good points about development and I completely agree with you on that. However I disagree with you on your point that talking about BA’64 is a waste of time and is a seed for planting hatred. First BA’64 doesn’t advocate for division or for development not to take place around the country. People across the Bemba and Nyanja groupings have been brainwashed to believe that. The very essence of BA’64 is to create unity, with a clause that the Litunga should retain some level of autonomy over his people and land, even while remaining party of the Central government and the union of Zambia.

      Forget the propaganda and the secessionists hardliners. They have been armed by decades of denials and dismissiveness from the rest of Zambia who preach scare campaigns and make people…

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      …believe that honoring this agreement will divide the country and allow the Lozis to take over the country and rule over everybody. No it ain’t true.

      There are many autonomous regions around the world, even as they remain part of their countries and central governments. In fact successful governments you mentioned are modelled on that premise.

      It would be simple in implementation… as an example: Barotseland could say some taxes in the region could be lower to attract investment; land could be allocated via traditional structures; corruption could be punishable by life; etc. But anyone could be free to apply to a central/federal court, etc.

      Again it’s not divisive and it’s not disunity or advocating for underdevelopment. The ‘waste of time’ part is as a result of the rest…

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      …The ‘waste of time’ part is as a result of the rest of Zambia being in denial and resisting to implement something simple and making it more complicated than it should be.

  7. BA 1964 exists, no question about that. To do away with it would require another agreement that formally says that the BA 1964 is hereby revoked. However, there are negotiations that have to lead to that.Who is qualified to negotiate here? There are many powerful kingdoms that have existed in this world but they no longer do as they have given way to modern methods of organising society. And this is how progress was achieved. Where is the Roman empire, the Ottoman empire, the German kingdom, the French kingdom? These have long since disappeared into oblivion in a violent way but in the modern world (21st C) dialogue is the way to resolve issues.

  8. Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists …THANK YOU !! for putting these *****ssss in there place stay blessed .

  9. Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists …THANK YOU !! for putting these Idxots in there place stay blessed .

    • People like you and I need to work together in order to fix our country. We are not here win social media wars. You are being a child, a silly one for that matter. Among us Africans there is so much greediness and useless pride which as you have seen will take us nowhere. We live in other people’s countries for a reason remember. It is possible to for us to rebuild our country and not being rude and reasonable. I honestly do not know what we gain as a people by being so fictitiously divided. It is often hard to have a normal conversation amongst ourselves because of egos and cheap pride.

    • BTW as a simple example. The country where you are. look at how much time, money and confusion is being caused by the simple act for voting to exit from EU. Soon you be needing visas and other documents to work or do business in EU and around the world more than before. Lets be honest, aware and scrutinize our thoughts, do not act on impulse or emotions but use your brain. I know it is hard, but i’m sure you can do it. If we clinged to history, would you be in Britain or Australia eating and working with people who enslaved our forefathers? The answer is a clear NO. But this is now possible because we have moved on as a human race. So again stop the non sense of Barotse whatever you are Zambians that is all.

  10. If you say the Barotseland was rich than Zambia where did they get the finances? It was from Rhodes who was so eager to enrich himself and the country he came from by educating a few Lozi individuals more especially the king to have him sign the nonsensical agreement he didn’t understand. By the way let the Litunga pay back the money he received fraudulently robbing Chief Mushili of the Lamba people from copper mines which isn’t in Barotseland.

    • Citizen: Hatred and disunity exist already in Zambia even as there is no negotiation on the BA 1964. What has caused them? ECL doesn’t punish members of his govt who insult whole communities. Chishimba Kambwili apologised to the Tonga people through their chiefs. In essence he was saying ECL was mistaken not to have fired him for saying what he said. KK whose govt disregarded the BA 1964 ensured that we had fashionable and unfashionable tribes/languages in Zambia. Ludwig Sondashi was criticised in the 1980s for merely asking and getting surprised that no one could speak Kaonde at the Zamtel telephone exchange in Solwezi. In colonial times that could not have happened because the colonial govt made familiarity with local language a condition for serving in any area in Northern Rhodesia…

  11. I have read the Barotse agreement of 1964 over and over. I do not see anywhere where there is autonomy or session or independence. What I hear from Barotse activists and what is in the document are simply two different things. Another difficulty: the alleged size or influence of the Litunga. That map is historically and contemporary problematic: Historically-It is disputed whether or not the Litunga’s influence really extended that far (Copperbelt, Southern, part of Lusaka and Central) ‘after running’ away from Shaka? Contemporary-Are these activists also engaging the govts. of DRC, Angola, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to which the original map extends? I don’t get it.

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      Hey there,
      You definitely have been reading the wrong document and not the BA’64 because it does talk about ‘autonomy’ in clear-language… no it does not talk about or session or independence, that you are right. As I have pointed above, ‘secession’ is being propagated by hardliners who argue, using an analogy, that if you tear down a marriage certificate, there is no marriage to talk about.

      As for the boundaries. The boundaries will be the current day Zambia. The agreement was signed in 1964 after colonial era boundaries were drawn. The Barotseland boundary you are referring to precedes colonial demarcation. The BA’64 is ‘silence’ on boundaries so it is pointless why opponents argue the issue of boundaries… the BRE themselves have argued there is no intention of reclaiming extra land…

    • Alternative Facts Fake News S**thole Countries Social Mobility Chinese Zambia Police Reservists

      …the BRE themselves have argued there is no intention of reclaiming extra land outside the current Western Province. Again the BA’64 is about ‘conquering’ others, it is about acknowledging the fact that Zambia was formed through the union of these 2 regions, aith the Litunga given his rights to administer the affairs of his people… simple as.

  12. Loud and Smart: The Litunga’s area did not extend to today’s Central, Copperbelt and Southern provinces. Mind you there was illiteracy in Barotseland when the Lochner Concession was signed in 1890 with Cecil Rhodes’ agent Frank Lochner to allow the BSA Co to occupy the area north of the Zambezi. The BA 64 exists and the only way to deal with it is by agreeing to say it is hereby revoked or replaced by something else.

  13. Learn from what happened to Katanga, Transval, Tripolitania, etc… Unless you want to go the south Sudan way…. Just forget about restoration and independence of the so called BRE, infact that things makes people pompous for nothing…. The world has changed with time,, do not have hearts of stone Luyis, the problem is that you Luyis thinks that you are better if your tribe is a country on its own… That is selfishness… Us Lambas don’t need to support you sorry cousins,,, you are fighting a lost battle…. Just stay on water, you are used to water guys… Even the Mongu – kalabo road is not beneficial to many people because people stays on protruded anthills on water and still uses canoes for moving from one neighbor to another…. Forget about your agreement thing and stop the BRE…

  14. 10.1 flag citizen **What we have here is a breach of contract ! KK signed that agreement knowing full well that he had no intention of honouring it FACT !! This is the typical nonsense of blame the victim ! had it been honoured non of us would be engaging in that conversation .Talking about fixing our country ? Lets begin by RIGHTING THIS WRONG !

  15. Thanks @ Chancima. point noted.
    @ Alternative Facts………thanks for your response. With due respect, we observers get confused when you go the route of ‘accepting’ current western province boundaries. I hope you realize that WP is a political provincial boundary (not Barotse boundary) demarcated by KK for administrative purposes. what if another govt. further demarcates WP like Sata did with Northern? Will you accept the new reduced western province? Another big problem is that there are other groups that disagree with Barotse movement. There are too many issues.

    • Government should call a referendum in the Western Province to find out if the people of that area what to be under the Litunga or not. Let the Nkoyas the Luvales the Mbundas the Mbukushus the Subiyas and others decide. These people were not consulted when the Litunga made the agreement with the British. KK emancipated these people who were treated like inferiors by the luyis. KK appointed these people to high offices without prejudice of their tribe.

  16. My people have lost the will to fight for their own country. Barotseland may never be Barotseland again. And yet, is it not just this controversial Litunga who is bent on pushing Barotseland to abrogate its sovereignty, if at all it still has any? Isn’t self-determination the way to go? Haven’t we seen that in Europe? Isn’t Giant Ethiopia now being shaken by that same realization? Zambia having slaughtered justice, on what moral ground do they now stand, as they undertake to negotiate with this contemptuous BRE? Is it not for the betrayal of the Barotse?

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