Northern Rhodesian provinces in the 1920s

Resolving Barotse Agreement of 1964 is the biggest challenge the Sata led government is facing today. It is far greater than the challenge from the opposition MMD and UPND opposition parties. It is very obvious that this issue shall not die a natural death as others have done in the past.

When defining Barotseland, it should be noted that the original Barotseland included parts of Copperbelt, Central province, Western pronvince, parts of Southern Province, and North Western province. However, much of the debate today centres on Western province. Indeed, western Province has remained to be one of the poorest parts of Zambia. It is also reported in some sections of the media that oil deposits have been discovered in Western province. Could oil be the
source of this hot debate? Is there an outside influence?

While researching on why Kenneth Kaunda abandoned the Barotse Agreement of 1964 (BA64), I have come across possible reasons. I call them possible reasons because I cannot find sufficient references to back them up. Speaking to KK, or the British government is an option to validate these theories.

CONSPIRACY THEORY #1: Threat from South African apartheid government

 

South African Apartheid government posed a greatest threat to the British colonial masters in the today called SADC region. The South African dominated government had earlier in the 20th century ruled Northern Rhodesia. In these areas, they did not seek local consent for them to establish federal offices. In Barotseland, they BSA got consent from the Litunga, the ruler of Barotseland. Sooner, they changed the name from Barotseland to North Western Rhodesia. This was done with no consent from the Litunga.

In 1951, BSA was abolished as the natives began getting more organised. This was the time a federation was formed. This federation did not include Barotseland. It was a federation of Southern Rhodesia,Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The Litunga governed area was not part of this federation, though it should be noted that “He” the Litunga had lost a great area including all copperbelt and parts of north Western province to the federation.

After Zambia’s independence, which the Litunga agreed to, as he needed protection, and never wanted to be independent alone as Barotseland, the South African Apartheid government became too concerned of the independence movements in the region. It is believed that Zambia’s security intelligence got the information that South African Apartheid government had sent intelligent personnel to the Litunga, to persuade him to part from Zambia.

In 1969, on fearing that the Litunga may part from Zambia, and would take with him the all copperblt, which still remains the economical bread area of Zambia. KK was advised that abrogating the BA64 was the solution.

CONSPIRACY THEORY 2: Personal differences KK and the Litunga

It is alleged that the Litunga was given large sums of money by the Kaunda led government. It is also alleged that even today, the Litunga still gets a huge amount of money from the government. He is believed to have shares in several companies in Zambia.

Even though KK government provided direct financial benefit to the Litunga, and referred to him as a friend, KK was scared of the Litunga, fearing that he would one day want to be president. KK is on record of arresting his perceived opponents on several occasions. With the Litunga, he decided to abrogate the BA64 agreement to reduce his influence in the area. He also changed the name from Barotseland to Western Province.

CONSPIRACY THEORY #3: Agreement was not worth and costly to the government

This is the least convincing theory I found. But KK government saw the agreement as not worth and giving the Litunga powers was not worth the cost involved. At the time of independence, Barotseland had no resources to export to earn forex unlike other parts of the country. The Litunga influence had also decreased to western province only by 1968. He had completely lost control since the he gave the rights to BSA for minerals on the copperbelt.

Conclusion:

There could be more conspiracy theories as to why Barotseland agreement was abrogated. The present generation should seek everlasting solution if Northern Rhodesia and North Western Rhodesia (Barotseland) are to remain a unitary state called Zambia. Otherwise, it will be in the interest of everyone involved to part if no lasting solution should be found now.

KK should also come into public and state the reasons why he abrogated the agreement. Sata should be brave enough too to bring out all documentations relating to the abrogation of BA64. Indeed, the Banda led MMD government enormously erred when they failed to listen to the concerns of the people of western province in January 2011. Banda and G. Kunda should be tried for the murder of peaceful protestors on January 14, 2011. They cannot claim to be innocent; they were the commanding authority at the time.

Knowing exactly why BA64 was abrogated and including it in history education books could be the beginning of a new chapter. They also need to state why western province remains the least developed area in the country. Why are new provinces and districts are formed and heavily funded when western province remains extremely under developed.

[By Michael Cholwe Kasonde]

[Read 50 times, 1 reads today]
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65 COMMENTS

  1. RUBBISH. In which companies does the Litunga has shares? Ba LT please dont allow people to spread rumours on sensitive issues such as this one.Delete this article please

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  2. I doubt the names of the author. Purely this article is written by a Lozi disguising as a Kasonde. God help us!

    None of these conspiracy theories hold water as they lack substance and are a mere speculation as the author rightly says. However if it is a researched article one would expect at least a bout of facts!!!! 

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  3. Interesting reading, I have always loved reading history not anything from before1855 though. To answer the question that the writer asks at the end of this interesting read ” They also need to state why western province remains the least developed area in the country. Why are new provinces and districts are formed and heavily funded when western province remains extremely under developed.”?
    The answer to that question is very simple, in my line of work, i move a lot in search of Beef and i am mostly in western province and i will tell you that it is indeed very difficult to do business with Lozi people, don’t get me wrong, not all of them are like that. The set up in western province is like that of Botswana to some extent although in Botswana it is well managed.

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  4. It beacuse most Zambians assume that having shares in any company always
    means somebody is making money.Shares is just paper money,real money
    extracted only when you sell at a profit if there is somebody willing to pay for them
    Anybody can have as many shares as possible in a company as they wish but if that
    company is in fact making loses ,the share price will go down and thy will not pay
    any dividends to the shareholders.This is pretty basic but i just find that most peaple
    do not understand how the stock market operates.The mere fact that you have shares
    in a company is not a measure of of your wealth or net worth.So dont be too overzealous
    about shares.Where does Litunga find time to monitor his share portfolio and make udjustments if need be?

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  5. #4 tell us exactly what problems you have faced in your beef businness with regard
    to doing business with the Lozis and can you expand on that comparison with the
    management of beef market in Botswana.i am very keen to know as soon or later
    i intend to go in this businness when i come back home at the end of Juy 2012.

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  6. KK is still alive and kicking and some remnants of the Wina family are still alive and kicking so really you have sources that can give you first hand information why the agreement was discarded.
    Follow up the leads and stop speculating or forever hold your peace.
    Every Jumbo has now become an expert on this document.
    Peoples sovereignty is at stake here.

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  7. Barotseland shall remain unique in the history of the world, and no amount of trickery shall do.

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  8. Kaunda is a dog. That is all \i can say for now. H e doesn’t even deserve to be named for the international airport. He was a dictator, a killer, and the only reason he gave up power is because he saw that even his military commanders told him that they were no longer willing to follow his murderous orders. Kaunda is not the saint he is being made to be. Older people who know the truth do not even want to hear that Malawian name. And trust me if some people became president the international airport will be renamed. Sata cannot be trusted: he is sick, illterate, naturally dull. He was the last person to join the independence struggle, he was the last person to leave UNIP, he was the last person to leave Chiluba. Good luck to you Zambians!

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    • You dog of a Lozi maggot ! Just comment on your chima BA64 and not attack personalities. Was KK there when your Litunga foolishly ‘sold’ Baraotse to the British ? Chimbwi !

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  9. # 5 IDACHI IN UK, i cant give you that infor on this site but give me you email address, i will gladly fill you in.

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    • Hi Mr. Silas I eaqually want to venture into buying animals to sell on the Copperbelt. My email address is [email protected]. I will be very happy for any info you will provide. Thank may God bless you.

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  10. Can anyone pliz educate me the actual physical boundaries for BL. Then we will b able to substantiate our discussions over BL. GOD BLESS ZAMBIA.

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    • Please search from google… it covers the copperbelt, congo Angola Zimbabwe botswana and southern Province lusaka and provinces. that is why it is shit. How can one chief take parts of other chiefs Kingdoms.

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  11. So now we see that the Litunga was a force to reckon with, unlike other traditional leaders, right? And that if he had refused to be part of Northern Rhodesia, Zambia would not have been what it is today, right?

    So when discussing the BL issue, remember those 2 first points.

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  12. BA64 should just be forgotten why the noise now? Only failures in the Zambian political system want to take advantage of this dead issue and cause confusion. Please just compete and one day someone from WP will be presido of Zed.

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    • the noise is there now because tho barosteland has greatly contributed to the development of Zambia, it has been sidelined in matters of development

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  13. National Referendum is key and we all know the outcome. Let the people of Western, Southern, Lusaka, Central, Copperbelt and N/Western provinces vote on this issue. Whatever the outcome, we will go that way and forever bury the case. After that, make any further discussions on the matter Treasonable. Find a Sandy province and turn into a Treason Jail. Period.

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    • @mwwemba i think the referendum can only take place in the actual barotseland, in cannot include other provinces. that said, what are the demographics of the barotseland. if the tribal population is greater outside western province then most likely the results of such a referendum would be to stay with the republic. very interesting indeed. personaly i beleive that all agreemenst signed are still in effect. the republican government should have taken it to parliement and sorted it out there and the result would be leagal!

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    • i ommited another issue…the parts of barotseland that are part of other nations would not be involved…does that break down the whole process?

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    • please you even know that that cant work.y ask others on matters of a province. it was an agreement that was made btn them, let them solve it.

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  14. @13 Mwanguni. You have reduced everything to having a President from your tribe. You are a shallow a very person. The agitation in Western Province can be blamed squarely on the succesive govts. This province has been denied infrastructure devt. The province has very little connections in terms of tarred roads between the Districts. This lack of roads has even made it difficult to promote the beef industry because veterinary workers find it difficult to travel around the province. And for a province which is now the largest in the country it beats me that it only has 7 districts. It is better we focus on the developmental needs of the province rather the so called provision of a president. That just shows a lack of analytical skills!

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    • @ireen well said. @mwanguni you are very narrow minded and the presence of people who think like you in zambian society is the reason for the lack of development in our country as a whole. at school we were always taught how wealthy zambia is in all sorts of resources, yet its people suffer still, thanks to minds like mwanguni and several others to many to mention in this forum. yasuss!

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  15. the calls for restoration of BA 64 are because KK always feared that the barotse would one day claim for indepence so the thought of underdeveloped the area by making sure that no district is connected to the other so that communication amoung the people becomes poor.thats why all this long the litunga and KK knew there was alot of copper in N/W P just as he is still aware that there is alot of copper in kaoma, the lumwana copper belt is infact deepest in kaoma,there is oil,gold and diamonds .kk decided to lock up these places because of his love for power and underdeveloped them so that they become pepetual beggers.Barotseland inreal sense is very wealthy.The restoration of BA 64 is key to the development of barotseland and the litunga has been so patient on this issue.Its no an issue whe

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  16. where people deserve evn to die.KK has been lying to the world that the people of barotseland are happy with the state of affairs.BA64 must just be restored and together with zambia set pace for its development.the status of barotseland on international scene is well documented.when the issue is put before international court the result will be very fast and the international community intrested infairness would guarantee the barotse boaders because they do not have an army to deter any encrochment.the parts in other countries would hold referendum to decide whether to join barotseland or be part of those countries this was happening in russia.The BA 64 can not be resolved by the kk or sata because they are the accused.an independent person must be ref inthis case.Let us be humble enough a

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  17. no one went for a referendum to sign this aggereement,so we just take the matter to court.international court.Then UN to diploy solders to defend barotse boarder until they have an army to take on zambia.there will be alot of jobs for our youths then.referendum for what.You dont discuss with a thief when he has stolen your coat,you just take him to court.KK is a very badman thats why all the people who knew this matter well are dead.He will find alot angrymen to answer to in hell.

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    • You are a he-goat. Do you mean we should deport all Lozi’s in Zambia including Soldier’s ? Grow up iwe kwindi !

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  18. #Blackbull,


    Then UN to diploy solders to defend barotse boarder until they have an army to take on zambia.”

    Which boarder? Which boundary?

    Does it include Kaprive Strip? part of Angola? NWP, SN, and parts of CB? Is it only western province? Come out clear.

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  19. #21 MWINE MUSHI – Barotseland is western province. Kaprivi strip is Namibia. NWP is north-wetern province and so on. When the BA was being signed Barosteland was western province. Let us just try and understand what the people are asking the govt to do instead of always contradicting what our friends and relatives are saying. It should not mean that the only time we take things serious is only when it directly affects us. The lozis are intelligent people who did not just wake up and started demanding ridiculous things. The fact is the BA is there and the govt must attend to it. How they resolve it is a matter of discussion but it must be attended to. The world over where things like this have been left to fester, serious civil problems have emerged where everybody has ended up losing.

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  20. Sata kaunda is not a saint and will never be.. chi kk  chikala solve the issure….Litunga has been so patient  and polit on This matter……….sata remember what u said in NW with that betch  inonge…..

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  21. #Gokigo Milazhe

    Thanks, so we are refering to Western Province. Indeed the issue of BL (WP) has the potential of bringing civil strife in Zambia if not well handled – especially now that we have the social media. I agree with people that want development in Western Province, it is the largest and the poorest, the terran is sandy making road construction expensive. The strategy shud include ,increasing the number of Districts to 10 so that the tasks are broken into small parts. I dont sopport secesssion. Also the PF Gvt seem not to take the pipo’s complaints seriously, they may woke one day wen it is too late. The Litunga is part of the history Zambia, his views shud be taken seriously.

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  22. Why did Sata leave Kasonde as acting president when vice president Scott is in the country? This is a mockery of Scott’s appointment. What can Kasonde do which Scott can’t do?

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  23. BA 64 is piece of shhhiittt ..not worth GRZ resource.. Sata is clear…The ‘Lozis’ are a weaker sex….so dont push your lucky you lozis anachists…

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  24. pan africanist munungu a maho.it will be nice to blow exited people like you to pieces like the nice nitogen explosions.we wish it was……..one day you will fear even to go in a bus.we will take it to you now now.GRZ cant solve BA 64 because they are the thieves in the matter.KK the most stupid old fool and witch.

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  25. BL is not Western Province, that is a lie. The BL is only Limulunga, that is it. The BA64 supporters know that they can not claim regions outside the WP so they have now reduced their claim to WP. But even within WP itself, their claim is not valid because the BA64 was only discussing Limulunga alone.

    The solution now is to split Western Province into two provinces just like Northern Province has been split into two. The one side should be Kafue Province with Kaoma district as the provincial capital and the rest should Western Province. BL does not exist and it never did. The BRE thought they were smart to try and trap the government into contracts but they forgot that contracts can be abrogated and declared void.

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  26. The current set up can not develop the province and besides we have issues of were the BRE have been trying to dominate politics in the province. The splitting of the province will resolve such issues.

    We are not in the 1960s for us to be discussing this issue like KK abrogated the BA64 yesterday, it has been over 45 years. We need peaceful solutions in 2012 going forward.

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  27. you excited guys,you have not seen true colours yet.wait until the constitution is out withoiut BA 64.Then you will wake up in rude shock.

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  28. barotseland will get it.it will be a court issue where the judgement will set the barotse regions free,refugeess like kafue advocate are soon going back to angola because they are begging to ran way from the refugee camp to claim to be nkoyas.us nkoyas are safe with mwene kahare representing us at the BNC.Dont you know that the majority of us nkoyas are scattered around mashi areas in kalabo and kaoma is now dominated by chiengele.if you want to make noise go to muchinga.kafue advocate you area refugee go to angola.if we knew you we could just come to pick you up for some few lashes at the kuta.leace our chiefs chiengele and kandala alone.

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  29. Which Kasonde is acting president get your facts straight. Anyway coming to BA which the writer so bravely say are unfounded rumours.The boundary of Barotse Land streches in Kaprivi Nambia,Vic Falls Zim,Kasane Bots and large parts of Angola that’s why its a non starter.The otherside people have made wrong statements that the rail line is the boundary this rail line only came into being in 1906 byu that time the mines were producing copper.The attitude of Lozis is what makes investment difficult check where shoprite is today no National Breweries if they become welcoming development will go there look at Chipata almost a city. Transform besides you are intelligent people look at the educated elite you have produced.

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  30. @ 33 Control. Man learn to be honest. The Barotse Agreement 1964 only refers to the then Barotseland. This is the entity Mwanawina Lewanika signed for in 1964 with KK and Duncan Sandys. This is the same area Kaunda renamed as Western Province in 1969. So please stop being an as.s/ho/le because Barotseland Protectorate never included the areas you are mentioning. You are just a divisive stu.p.id fool. You i.di.ot the location of Shoprite does not define Development. Shoprite chose a greensite for their Retail and wholesale business. They are still serving Mongu. Its like saying Chipata would have been more DEVELOPED if the Great East Mall was in the town centre. Tell us something new rather than your usual matuvi! Would L/stone be more Developed if Spar was in the city centre?

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  31. The Barotse Agreement of 1964 is a useless piece of document that no sane Zambian should even waste time talking about it. Before you can even consider it, look at its legitimacy, ask yourselves the following questions: 
    1. Who drew the boundaries of Barotseland?

    2. How many tribes where covered under this territory?

    3. Did all tribes send emissaries to sign this document or treaty?

    4. Who drafted the same Barotse Agreement?

    5. Was the document agreed by all interested parties?

    Please don`t waste time and energy on that useless piece of paper. Someone please flash it in the toilet and let us move on with more important issues. KK is wise, that is why he did not waste time on that useless document.

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  32. @33 Control. As a Native of Kalabo; I am more concerned about the Mongu-Kalabo Road and not stu.pid things like the location of Shoprite or the brewing of Chibuku in Mongu. You are a very trivial and childish person!

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  33. @35 Philosopher.
    (1) Is the entity called Zambia legitimate. (2) Who drew the boundaries of Zambia? Was every tribe consulted to be included in this territory called Zambia? Was every tribe representated at the independence negotiations? Better we go back to the situation we were all in before this illegal nonsense of an entity called Zambia. We should not waste time being a part of some entity no tribe endorsed. As for Kaunda it was st.upid for him to appendage his signature to something he did not approve of……for that is the definition of id.io.cy!

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  34. Guys, stop insulting Lozis. Come to terms with reality. Barotseland is here to stay unless you can reiwrite history which thank God none of us can nor will. Accept the reality and you will be set free. Viva Barotselandm

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  35. Shut up all of you making noise!!!

    The BL is western Province. The People of western province want development. Its the most undeveloped region in Zambia. That is the issue.

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  36. You are ignorant to ignore this issue or rubbish it. I suggest those who know nothing  keep shut. 

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  37. This Barotse anthem will never take us any where! In fact, it is the reason why those agitating for Restoration have always and ever been irritant and confrontational. But for how long? Please lets change the mindset of our people. If we continue with retoric for ever and ever others will avoid you. Friendship and love is about treating each other so, not agitating irritational, confrontational. When you remain that way others are also bound to do the same. Where does that leave us. Let us just think of developmental issues. Bring ideas of how to tap beneath the sands, get oil, gas and minerals. Ideas of how to use all resources for the benefit of our folks. Change or change will change you. 

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  38. this BRE issue is really getting out of hand.the issue is simple give them the development they need and things will be okey.one wonders has to why so many highly educated pipo are from that side and yet they are under developed, wat are they doing abt their land. the sand issue is a no starter coz bostwana is a sandy nation and yet very developed.let the exsitence of minerals be made real coz its a just stories we hear about.y do the pipo of BL keep queit about the minerals if its true and have evidence let them also come in the open.if their a few pipo advocating the same,let them be fished out coz its treason.on the other hand the litunga is so queit about the issue,is he using other pipo to talk.if he wants it.let him come out in the open.have the other tribes agreed to part company.wi

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  39. After the end of the article, it dawned on me that I had actually read nothing. You call that conjecure conspiracies? Kikikiki

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  40. None of the premises are correct. Author might do himself a favour and read every book out there on the history, research Hansard in UK and the documents of their awfully named ‘aboriginal office’. Lozis were used to work in SA… Actually never mind. Just ask KK. He’s there. I’m sure he recalls the closing down of the bank of Barotseland and 150 years of ‘royalties’ that didn’t really come to pass. Western province was purposely under developed when we were run by a company of gold diggers, or by so called settlers… No difference post federation and independence. Share the love people. All Zambians need development and conspiracy theories are unhealthy.

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  41. Can Zambia survive without Barotseland (Western Province)? Can Barotseland survite as an independent country?

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  42. The issue of barotseland is taken like a joke by zambian govt i have an advice
    1 The people were cheated because how can you offer 370million pound to zambia and land
    2 take this issue to UN BEFORE BOMBS ARE USED TO FORCE GOVT TO SURRENDER THIS LAND SUDAN DID IT

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  43. most people make themselves blind to the face that Zambia has a lot of tribalism and prejudice. begin to look at the structure of each government and who fills the high positions. when a lozi or tonga helps another of their tribe, people regard it as tribalism however, when an easterner or bemba does the same thing its dont ku beba. this attitude also extends to the mare speaking of the languages coz if these tribes mentioned above speak their language, they are being tribal whilst they are expected not only to understand other languages but also speak they coz they are apparently the most popular. to whom i ask? voting also runs in the same lines. so is provincial development. Nobody forced Sata to bring up the matter or promise to restore it. y atak the lozis ova smthing thev bin promisd

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  44. i believe that if there is someone to be attacked of insulted it should be the president who started the whole thing. i cant blame the lozi for wanting what was promised to them. I also blame the presidents before him for neglecting the province. if u’ve been to all the provinces like i have and stayed there you will realize that it has really been ignored even in the mare distribution of facilities. i ask you, how many hospitals and clinics are to be and being constructed, how is the distribution around the country? how many roads are being constructed and where are they? if truly we want one Zambia one nation, let us look at each tribe and province equal and not just insult others without gathering all the information needed to draw up a conclusion. if we cant develop it, maybe they can

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  45. Most of the information is not correct eg that Barotseland wanted to go for independence as one with Northern Rhodesia for security. The Litunga by then actually opposed joining Zambia but had to follow what people had agreed. Barotseland is on record having pushed for seperate independence from 1960.

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