The deadly silence of Zambia’s intelligentsia on public discourse

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Dr Sishuwa Sishuwa flying the flag of Zambia
Dr Sishuwa Sishuwa flying the flag of Zambia

By Sishuwa Sishuwa

What do Zambia’s intellectuals (those trained in a particular discipline and attached to a university faculty) think about the pitiful state of our existence today, including what is happening in North-Western Province, where we, as a country, have allowed the re-creation of spatial apartheid in the new mining areas? Much like during the colonial era, mining companies in Solwezi have replicated the notorious racial colour bar: white mineworkers are paid exceptionally high wages, live in segregated estates with lavish housing and social facilities, while their black counterparts who do much of the labour are paid significantly less, housed in distinctively less lavish settings, and effectively left to fend for themselves.

Where is the Zambian intelligentsia in identifying what looks very much like a new wave of colonialism? What do our intellectuals think about the plight of the rural residents who once called this place home, but have since been dispossessed of their land and are now living in soul-less shanty compounds – their land leased, complete with surface rights to multinational corporations and ex-Rhodesians? Kalumbila, for example, is padded with staff from Australia and Zimbabwe, many with kinship ties to the mine proprietors! The issue is that places for the settlement of many whites in southern Africa, in particular South Africa and Zimbabwe, are hostile, so there is a sense of looking somewhere new and away from the scrutiny of state regulatory authorities. It is now evident that in Zambia and North-western Province in particular, they have found that sanctuary. Kalumbila is effectively a little apartheid outpost in independent Zambia!

white mineworkers are paid exceptionally high wages, live in segregated estates with lavish housing and social facilities, while their black counterparts who do much of the labour are paid significantly less, housed in distinctively less lavish settings, and effectively left to fend for themselves.

What’s more, the dynamics in North-Western Province are not different from what is going on in Luapula, where land has been allocated for large-scale farming developments, but also for so-called energy projects, which in themselves are not a bad thing, but just that many of these projects get much more land than they need for their operations. It is clear that the interest of the new corporations is not just mining but also appropriating land for ranching, commercial farming and private wildlife reserves. Frighteningly, these plans encompass much of Western Zambia (the Barotse floodplains of the Zambezi river and adjacent areas) and go all the way to Southern Province. This explains why there has been a concerted effort by multinational corporations to lobby to get this land under the so-called custodianship. i.e. preserving the place as nature reserves, masked under the rhetoric of ‘greening the environment’ or promoting ‘sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems’, whilst promoting the degazetting of protected forests and reserves in order for them to be privatised.

Area Member of Parliament Jonas Chanda Meeting the 1,000 displaced residents.
The 1,000 residents of Chichele area in Ndola who have been displaced by a foreign company -Golden Lay

One cannot help but think that the West, and many white Africans, still have visions of Empire – I cannot underestimate the extent to which they will work to further these aims. Dispossession of land (much of which was already occupied by rural folk but treated as empty) and protection of these spoils via ‘private property’ is for them also seen as something quite noble, as it is rationalised as taming the landscape to facilitate ‘development’ and the ‘civilising’ of ‘natives’, whose desires to live a certain lifestyle and whose connection to the land are swept aside. Why can’t our intelligentsia speak out on these key matters of public concern to help our national leaders understand that we are in effect being recolonised by stealth? Are they ‘captured’?

What do Zambian scholars think about our ‘independence’, about who ‘we’ are, about the global debt mechanisms that restrict the possibility of economic independence? With the imminent return of the International Monetary Fund, for instance, what will we become? So many decades after independence, can we be wise and brave enough to advance a genuine independence? What is the public role of intellectuals in this country? Just who and where are Zambia’s public intellectuals? There are the academics at our universities and many more educated Zambians working abroad, but what is their role in relation to the government today?

Below, Mahmood Mamdani, a Ugandan academic and political commentator, issues a challenge to African academics to reflect carefully on their role and how it has changed in the years since political independence was achieved. The section I have deliberately quoted at great length was part of Mamdani’s address to the University of South Africa delivered on 26 May 2017 to commemorate the 8th annual Thabo Mbeki Africa Day. Mamdani, arguably Africa’s leading public intellectual, demonstrates the downward slide of the public intellectual in Africa from a political partisan to an apolitical expert and calls on African scholars to both lend their voices to important public concerns and to theorise their social realities.

“The public intellectual and the scholar are not two different persona, but two distinct perspectives, even preoccupations. One draws inspiration from the world of scholarship, the other from that of public debate. The distinction between them is not hard and fast, since the boundary shifts over time and is blurred at any one point in time. Tensions between the two perspectives were evident in the early post-independence period. If the public intellectual hoped to work with local communities, as close to the ground as possible, the scholar had ‘universalist’ aspirations based on the claim that a universal intellectual traded a global ware, theory. The split between the two was often pregnant with political significance. If the public intellectual took sides as a proud partisan, the scholar claimed objectivity as an observer, a Hegelian witness – “the owl of Minerwa” – whose wisdom came only in the wake of events to which the disinterested intellectual must relate as a witness rather than as a partisan.

“We need to acknowledge that the gulf between the public intellectual and the scholar is minimal in the West and maximal outside the West. This is for one reason: the theory that valorises the scholar is abstracted from the Western experience. Even though theorists claim universality, a theory has a history, and that is the history of the West. This means that in spite of pretensions to universality, the scholar in the modern (African) academy is basically a Western scholar. It should not be surprising that Western theories resonate more in the Western context than outside it.

“In the half century since independence in this part of the world (Africa), the dialect between the public intellectual and the scholar has gone through a number of significant shifts. The first big shift took place with independence. Few at the time realised how radically both the perspective and role of the public intellectual would change in a post-colonial setting. The role of the public intellectual in a colonial university was relatively unambiguous. The public intellectual found a secure home in the ranks of the nationalist movement. But nationalists in power had little patience with domestic critics especially if those crossed the language barrier between the gown and the town, the town and the countryside and tried to link up with the social movements. This introduced a tension among radical intellectuals still on campus and yesterday’s ‘comrades’ now in power. From allies in a broad camp, they turned into adversaries.

“The second big shift is taking place now, on the hills of the development of an expanded NGO movement. Most NGOs have been retooled to act as so many whistle-blowers who must ensure the ‘accountability’ and ‘transparency’ of the government in power, but without combining it with the search for an alternative order. If NGOs act as so many sentries for the neoliberal order, the new public intellectuals are expected to shed the politically partisan character of the old public intellectual and function as so many in-house advisors to governments of the day. Though advising governments, they don the cloak of expertise and claim to be untainted by politics. Yet the consequence is to harness would-be ‘scholars’ to a political agenda that would quarantine the nationalist project. The underlying assumption is that politics inevitably introduces a bias, whether national or sectarian, and has thus a negative influence on the formulation and implementation of policy.

“The ground is shifting as international donors seek to reshape the African academy and its relationship to society and the state. In this new context, the public intellectual is being retooled as an advisor and a consultant. Not the university but the think tank is emerging as the new home for the refashioned public intellectual in the neo-liberal era. The effect is both to depoliticise the public intellectual and to hitch his and her labour to an official agenda.

“Unlike in the 1960s and 1970s, the public intellectual of the early 21st century cannot be presumed to be a progressive intellectual. In this era, the definition of the ‘public’ has changed. It is no longer just the ‘people’, the governed. It also includes the government, the donor and the financial institutions on which governments increasingly depend. The public intellectual based in a think tank is expected to serve the government above all as the guarantor of ‘evidence-based policies’. The new type of public intellectual is recruited and funded by development partners to monitor public institutions both from within and from without, as it were round the clock in the name of ‘accountability’. The combination of ‘transparency’ and ‘accountability’ in turn ensures the monitoring of this new type of the public intellectual by development partners who fund the exercise.”

Mamdani is right. Intellectuals have an ethical obligation to the wider world around them within which they pursue their scholarly activities. In contexts of injustice, for instance, they should not stand aside but immerse themselves in the struggles of their communities including advancing freedom and knowledge to an audience larger than their professional colleagues and students. When performing this public role, the intellectual should rid themselves of the ‘objective’ workings of scholarly engagements and be unafraid to take an informed position on a range of public issues or subjects, however controversial or arguably political; they should actively seek to disturb the status quo, aim for openness, and advance the class considerations or interests of other groups other than their own: the exploited, the marginalised, the poor, rural dwellers and the less powerful.
It is time we heard the voice of Zambian economists, historians, political scientists, development academics, etc., on the social, political and economic implications of a post-humanist Zambia, including the almost uncritical acceptance in public discourse of neoliberalism and its rationales that so hinders the ability to reformulate an alternative. Their silence on many important national discussions is deadly and disturbing. Our literati men and women have the responsibility to find common ground between private and public interests. What do they consider to have been the implications of the drastic restructuring of the Zambian state since 1991 on how the country sees itself and works? What, in the judgement of our intelligentsia, explains our continued sub-human existence and our refusal to rebel against this status?

There must be many and complex and interrelated social, economic, political, cultural, religious and spiritual forces combining with our entire history as a people that have moulded and continue to shape the current psychology and character structure of the ‘typical Zambian’: unquestioning, passive, cowardly, zombie-like, devoid of ethical values, easy to manipulate, naive, superstitious and quite clearly backward. Our intelligentsia, in their diversity, have a duty to unravel these forces, understand them, and reshape them to build a different and genuinely alive Zambian. We, as a people, must understand all this as it relates to our place in the wider world. In fact, our current deep-seated systemic and structural social, economic and cultural crises are a perfect foundation to begin to build a new national consciousness, to begin to resurrect the human being in the Zambian.

If Zambia’s intellectuals are to remain relevant to the country beyond their teaching and research roles, they should consider engaging with the changing issues of the world around them while at the same time remaining true to the principles of their scholarly trade. The veneer of ‘neutrality’ and ‘objectivity’ can no longer be a hiding place.

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18 COMMENTS

  1. Intelligentsia already voted for the status quo subject to next elections in 2021. You have enough time to rally around one political party or form your own poltical party comprising intelligent and educated Zambian people. Its a better route than using social media which the people you are representing do not have access to.

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    • What is this!? Am scratching my head. Elyashi lya mu bar ili.
      Kalumbila was sold off yes, just same as Lozi king Lewanika sold Copperbelt for a 2 bags of salt and a bicycle (iron-horse). What’s wrong with Copperbelt today?
      Kalumbila has produced Lumwana Radiants Football Club.

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    • I read this article when it was first published in News Diggers last year and shared it widely with my colleagues here on the mine in Kansanshi because I thought it deserves wide readership. It raises extremely salient points and I think is primarily meant for a specific audience: bo punzila. Where are they? What are they saying? The article is excellent but it is way above the comprehension of the average blogger, used to talking about ECL, HH, PF, UPND, etc. none of which appear in it. Just look at the comments here and you will understand the plight of the LT blogger when confronted with articles of genuine substance like this one. Well done Shishuwa. Sadly for you, we don’t discuss serious issues in this country, and the comments above and below illustrate my point. Do not despair…

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  2. Perhaps there is no need for mine companies to provide housing: pay a handsome housing allowance. What follows after receiving housing allowance is each individual worker looks for affordable housing. In this way, institutionalized ghettos will be a thing of the past. But things are more complex than that. It is wrong to look at color primarily because a family is generally colorful. Yesterday, Chinese. Today, Whites. Tomorrow, Indians? The rule of law is more concerned with peace and tranquility. There is need for tolerance. There is need for accommodation. There is need for patience. There is need for understanding. The color of dogs and cats is immaterial. What matters is the capacity to perform core functions, core duties, to deliver results. Or, are you suggesting that the color of…

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    • It is wrong to look at color primarily because a family is generally colorful. Yesterday, Chinese. Today, Whites. Tomorrow, Indians? The rule of law is more concerned with peace and tranquility. There is need for tolerance. There is need for accommodation. There is need for patience. There is need for understanding. The color of dogs and cats is immaterial. What matters is the capacity to perform core functions, core duties, to deliver results. Or, are you suggesting that the color of pianist is more important than the melody?

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  3. If you want to help Zambia, help the ladies building businesses in their village communities. “If wealth was the inevitable result of hard work and enterprise, every woman in Africa would be a millionaire. ” – George Monbiot. So why not give them what they need to make themselves millionaires? They don’t need much, just a fair chance and a fair share. The mining companies and big prestige projects can look after themselves.

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  4. Sishiwa chisushi whatever you call yourself, we the people of Zambia don’t need your analysis of things. We are happy with the way things are and come 2021 we will still vote for PF.
    May the lord bless ECL
    long live the PF!!!!

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  5. The issue is not colour per se. Sishuwa raises the issue that based on colour people are being denied what they rightfully deserve for the duties they perform. Indeed the Zambian needs to work up and this must begin with the ‘consultant’. What is it that the ‘consultant’ is contributing to society other than aiding the status quo? The ‘consultant’ must not be comfortable with self but care about the Zambian.

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  6. Most of the times its fellow Zambians HR that advise mines not too pay a lot of money to Zambian workers. Ask the Zambians working in mines

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  7. Intectuals of Zambian learn to discuss issues in the broader context. Expertriates (black or white or grey) enjoy certain privileges when they work out side their countries. Ask any Zambian who has worked as expertriate they have better perks than the locals. Of course I am not referring Zambians who do menial jobs in Europe USA or RSA.
    Your arguements should border on why hire expertriates when there are Zambians who can do the same jobs. There are lot of Kenyans, Tanzanians, Nigerians etc who manage international organisations and live like kings here. Their organisations pay for as much as US$ monthly rentals. Zambians on these internation organisations also enjoy the same benefits in foreign countries. I Nairobi you would be tired of counting how many live in gated communities!

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  8. The only intellectual that is quiet is Dr GBM, Dr Kambwili, Dr Saviour Chishimba and Dr Boma Ni Lusambo are all active. So what does Sishuwa want? Before the end of the year we plan to increase the number of doctors with the following nominees, Dr Freedom Sikazwe, Dr Dora, Dr Malanji, Dr Amos Chanda, Dr Mwenya Musenge, Dr Jack Mwiimbu, Dr Garry Nkombo, Dr Moono Lubezhi, who is next?

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  9. Here they come again! The likes of Nkrumah saw this way back, but destiny was never on the side of the African intelligentsia. Emerging out of want, he could barely cope with the abounding insecurities. The best for many was to toll the muzungu anikonde path, win favours from the master for escape routes from poverty . Some Lucky ones earned handsomely but where did they invest? Offshore!

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  10. Zambia’s education system is based on memorizing questions and answers for exam versus learning to think for life.

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