Saturday, April 20, 2024

Bwana Mkubwa shuts down as 365 workers lose jobs

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Bwana Mkubwa copper plant in Ndola on the Copperbelt has been closed and 365 workers laid off.

The mine has closed its plant due to lack of stock feed which was being imported from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Currently only the acid plant is operational.

But Mines Minister, Maxwell Mwale, says the closure of Bwana Mkubwa could have been avoided if management had planned its operations properly.

Mr. Mwale said in Ndola on Wednesday that management should have considered other alternatives of getting raw materials, as suggested by government.

He said government allowed First Quantum the owners of Bwana Mukubwa to explore in Mkushi and Mpongwe and wondered why management at the mine did not conclude the exploration.

Other mining firms on the copperbelt may lay off some workers as copper prices continue to go down on the international market.

President Rupiah Banda said on Tuesday that government is working hard to reduce the country’s dependence on copper.

He said efforts are under way to improve the tourism sector which will earn the country substantial revenue.

Meanwhile, Mines Minister, Maxwell Mwale, says government will not condone any level of asset stripping at any of the mines in view of the low copper prices on the international market.

Mr. Mwale says government is worried that some mine owners might start selling vital equipment as scrap metal.

Mr. Mwale was speaking after a meeting with the mine workers unions in Kitwe.

And Labour minister, Austin Liato, said issues affecting the mines in Zambia should not be politicized.

Mr. Liato said it is wrong for some opposition leaders to blame president, Rupiah Banda, for the low copper prices because the problem affects all copper producing countries.

[ZNBC]

126 COMMENTS

  1. This is disaster, even the benefits the workers got were swallowed by the loans. Imagine someone got K15,000,000.00 and paid paid K9,000,000.00 to clear the loan. k6,000,000.00 take home minus k1,000,000.00 for house rent. You can see the anguish oon the face. Really bad.

  2. This is disaster, even the benefits the workers got were swallowed by the loans. Imagine someone got K15,000,000.00 and paid K9,000,000.00 to clear the loan. k6,000,000.00 take home minus k1,000,000.00 for house rent. You can see the anguish on the face. Really bad.

  3. Banda a kiss welcome u “”” from Mfuwe. I throw a shoe on you IYO Nsapato POOOO. You are a murderer killing our brothers while you and your relatives and fellow politicians are enjoying another African bush in Iraq

  4. In the middle of such crisis, RB can find time to go to MFUWE for a private visit. The chap has no clue how to tackle the current challenges.

    Mwale is talking of asset striping. This is the price a country pays for having crooked leaders like him who rushed to sell our mines to fellow crooks. You need to think twice about your development model where you think a foreign investor is our economic savior.

  5. ^ -1000, he has done a pretty good job. This is just the beginning we should expect more job loses in the coming year. Ala bwafya, RB this is thr test for true leadership.

  6. #14 point of correction….:)>-…we need to ask hw many jobs has Banda swallowed since he came in!!!! We need to pray[-o<[-o<[-o<[-o< more for our country we really dnt knw hw many pipo will be in employment by the end of MMD ruling..:-?:-?:-?:-?:(:(:(

  7. This is the repudiation of criticism of the government allowing the mining companies to not pay taxes, with the excuse that the mines needed the money to expand.

    Well guess what. What happens with the money spent on mine expansion now?

    It would have been much better to just tax the mines and build up foreign currency reserves.

  8. I Thought Mr.RBB said we shall have ten new mines opening or did i did not hear him clearly he meant ten new mines closing???? Almost all the mines on the CB have been closed LCM under caretaker management what does that mean? Bwana mukubwa Latest casualty soon it will be State House retrenching staff.

  9. The past 4 years the Economy had stopped biting it was just the Dogs now it will be the other way round >:) and ladies please stop pegging asking for talk time, Zavuta manje

  10. RB is a curse to Zambia. His re-emergence on the Zambian leadership platform is proving to be very disastrous. The man is neither here nor there and yet he is holding the reigns of Zambia 1. The only good thing he has shown so far to be good at is chickening out of every situation where his leadership is mostly needed. THE MAN IS A BIG TAIL. The Bible says “cursed is a nation whose leaders are servants (TAILS)”. Zambia 1 responsibilities are way too high for him. I think there are better people to be Zambia 1 than this RB. But again we can only blame ourselves for our docility pa Zed. A revolution wouldn’t be a bad idea.

  11. #21, RB is by far better than Chiluba who was a real curse for Zambia. I spoke to Obama yesterday and Mandela the other day, they both think Chiluba must be jailed. He is the real curse for Zambia. When I take over in 2011 Zambia should be fine. I will educate iliterate people like Chiluba and Sata and advise them what civilised politics is all about. We are all serving the same people and lies dont help. Zambia is one of the best countries for a lot of people. But get rid of crroks like Chiluba and his children, they annoy tourists.

  12. For as long as copper prices remain low, our economy will face enormous challenges. The main reason why our mining industry will suffer is that a number of mines were opened/re-opened following the increase in copper prices a few years ago. The truth is that most of the new mines would not be profitable if copper remained at its current price (which may still be quite high historically) because of very high production costs. The only mines which will survive are those whose cost of production was low enough to render them profitable before the last commodity price boom.

  13. This closure was anticipated. By the way, what happened to the Copperbelt Diversification Program that was led by Dr. Sixtus Mulenga and championed by late LPM. There’s been no feedback about progress, or was it another grandiose white elephant project?! 🙁

  14. Politicians should have seen this coming, Only a f**l didn’t see this coming, Copper prices on the world market stated going down in March 2008 Politicians did not care that is why they increased their wages. What they need to do now is rescind their decision and all them should give back their salary increments and take a pay cut of 5% from MPs to President. City Govts acros

  15. Owe Mayo twachula ifwe. Lesa Mutule eee. What is happening to our country. Is this what they call job creation. Christ come quickly, there is dangerin Zed, there is hunger in the country, please come lord Jesus the light is dying and the night keep crying come lord Jesus.

  16. Its really a sad story how can this happen nyama soya thats why your gal (Kanono) used to sleep with Milliot Kaz just there in Chipata

  17. And i can assure you its not over the moment she sees him she get so scared such that she will end up paying him money thinking he will speak his mind to nyama soya why is it that all the first ladies have such bad history its a shame

  18. Why is that when it comes to job cutting by these useless investors only Zambian are victims?You will discover that None of the foreigners in the same Bwana Mukubwa has lost his/her job.365 bengi abo.What will happen to the families of those pipo whose jobs have been terminated? This is one way of calling crime in the country.Zambia icalo cesu tuleya kwisa kanshi? Eish!!!!!! ~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(

  19. It is expected that those who aspire to lead shud show and inspire the masses with a proven record or atleast motivate and inspire people that they will be in the promised land.
    unfortunately for Zed!! the institutions that are suppose to hold people to account are toothless…eg Parliament as the moral conscience of the nation. how can we explain Government Increaments wen all they do is consume and not produce.
    am buffled that non of our leaders have shown leadership by saying we will sacrifice with the masses.
    It makes me wonder if they aspire to serve or they are out for an income and prestige nothin more.
    Its each one for himself now!!!!

  20. Matworld-Nice guy!, How are you my bro? Zambia is heading for doom. The situation is really bad. why close the plant because of feed? I consider this to be total incopetence. I missed Ba Moze Yesterday, any clue where he is? Baby C, cutey, Ba Zambia, Sarah,and everyone else goodmorning

  21. very sad indeed ! however, this is expected and long overdue ! zed govn’t is rotten.

    Just wait,we are in for worse even more worse than zimbambwe in just a few months.

  22. I knew abt this story a month or so ago and to my suprise it only made headlines yestaday.In luanshya came 31st dec abt 800 workers will b pa street.NAIBIPA.

  23. Ba Rashid Iam not okay my Bro.Ba MMD banisiliza Nzelu,Iam just worried of what will happen to the families of those 365 workers.Eish!!! ~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(

  24. Fellow Zambians,
    The Bwana Mkubwa closure is a bad omen for Zed. What is sad is that even our papers such as the Times and Daily Mail are badly compromised. Look at today’s headlines, they start with a petty matter leaving out the real issues. The need to highlight the true enormity of the catastrophe coming our way. 365×6(average dependants per retrenched worker)is the real number affected at Bwana. These papers decide to dwell on the petty matters. Mulongoti really did a damn good job at ukubebila amano aba ama guys. 😮

  25. Hey Man Kunde Longtime.

    Matworld, Rashid, Nine Chale, how are you??

    Makes sad reading. Lack of planning and forecast has dearly costed them. Shame! ;;)

  26. Girly and Baby C how are you today? hope today Ba LT wont chase you with their News.Missed you guys.Today Iam Not okay Ci dogfridah and ci Chola have dissapointed me.Eish!!!!
    ~X(~X(~X(~X(

  27. From a sociological and demographical point of view, things are very bleak for Zed. The apparent lack of political will from our leaders, especially those in power to take the bull by its horns as it were, is the real disaster for Zed. I strongly feel RB had lost all hope of ever ruling this nation. Which is why, he can’t govern because he is overwhelmed by the economic problems Zed is facing. He thought going to Plot 1 is the same as going to Mfuwe on holiday.He should not give us that talk of global economic crisis. To start with, he had no plan for Zed. Obama had. Fuel prices in RSA have come down. Not so here. That is what we want to see, not agonizings and lamentations fron the man.

  28. Oh!! My sweetness Lusaka I have been waiting for you my dear to put a smile on my face.I tell you Ci Dogfridah na ci chola have pissed me off.hope you wont do the same to me my dear.
    :x:x:x

  29. I don’t know why this has become news now. The Mine closed on the 30th November. They decided to keep quiet and now they give the news!!!!!!! Shame on you reporters especially ZNBC/ZANIS cadre reporters. We pulled our men from FQMOLon the 29th Nov. Promises of opening new mines has turned into closing down of mines. RB. They have attributed to high cost of electricity on the production that is making them unable to continual with operations. Do something about it RB. Come up with plans to save companies. Don’t Just speak to reporters, speak to the people Nyama Soya. We are the on the ground and we feeling the impact.

  30. Real Baby C I I know you can not do that.If that Fake Baby C Hates me then that’s okay,but I will love Him/her more than he/she hates me.Iam nice guy!The Bible tells me in Matthew 5 vs 44 to love my enemies and those who persecute me.

  31. Everyone is player in building our country. Lets not depend on people that can fire us anytime. Its just that the interest rates at the bank have been high even before a financial recession took off. we need to move from being employees to employers ourselves. God bless Zambia, we will cross over, it was like this even when Mwanawasa (MHSRIP) started his reign.

    Without being politically affiliated, Zambia surely be Saved. I salute you Dr. Nevers Mumba.

  32. Honestly with the way the world economy is performing, what do you think will be the investors interested?

    1) If I was an Investor in Zambia, I would protect my interest first, thats my investment.
    2) These investor when they sell the copper they deposit the money in foreign banks, thats why the cant keep that work force coz the money is not available currently in the Zambian banks to sustain the human resource.
    3) The minning deal it advantages the firms more than the GRZ.
    4) Just wait and see, you and I will remember the former days of ZCCM.
    5) To the affected workers may the LORD guide you as we face this challenge [-o<^:)^[-o<^:)^[-o<^:)^[-o<^:)^

  33. Real Baby C, ni nabwela nadabwa kunitukanila bamudala banga ba Matworld-Nice guy!

    Its nice to here that you were not the one, good day to the two of you! :d

  34. Ze Biggy the Blackman’s Child,Naine nadabwa maningi,but one thing that we should know is its not everyone who will love you in life.I have heard pipo saying that “I hate him/her naturally”. so iam ok with this fake Baby C.

  35. **==**==**==TOO BAD!! anyone to tell me, has the mine been closed for good or what? has the stock feed finished in congo or there sunctions? abantu balafwa twapapata….

  36. Ba Matworld-Nice guy, we are trying. How can we be fine, the Kwacha my bro we dont know what next. Our brothers and sisters are losing their jobs like hell. I am happy that was not the original Baby C.

  37. Blackman’s child

    Cheers . Thanks pal. mazabuka was fine. I accomplished what i went for.
    The story about those Zimbabwean prostitutes? Fyabufi. If anything, our own sisters are the majority and the most active. :)>-

  38. Hey! Ba Moze you are back! Tell me how was Mazabuka? we really missed you Ze biggy.Its good that you have found us the way you left us.We missed you.Ba rashid has even gone coz you where on on the blog.

  39. Ya we are now going back to eating roots. Mealie Meal up, miners fired, kwacha down, rupiah enjoying himself in mfuwe, mulongoti quiet, tetamashiba firing on all cylinders what a country

  40. Matworld

    Am ok dear friend. Maz was ok mudala. Manje iwe, am shocked there is confusion here. Ma baby C two, Iwe naiwe chicks falling head over hills for you…Ni ya bwanji boy? Brief me please.

  41. Ba Moze

    Iliko trick mudala wanga,ma Baby c aba naine banisokoneza,but Am sure someone somewhere is trying to disturb the peace that we have been enjoying amongest ourselves.unless otherwise,but as at now thats what i think.for the chicks am mauless.I forgot to give you abig hug >:d<>:d<>:d<

  42. Matworld

    :)>-
    Cheers mwana. manje tizaziba bwanji pali ma Baby c? Although i strongly believe the “Real baby C” is the original. Chija chinangu nichi Gon’ga. Waziba ka?

  43. Ba Moze,Iam happy you are back,Manje imwe mukambapo bwanji pali ci Dogfridah and ci Chola camene bana luma ku item ku Nchelenge.

  44. No. 66 Ba Moze You ve’ made me laugh on our own sisters are the majority and the most active.=)):))=)):))

    I really missed you man.

  45. I am told even with these economic situ Mugabe has managed to export all sorts of commodities.

    Cement, Groceries, Prostitutes, Cholera the list is endless.

  46. >:/
    I have all the details about the closure of BWana Mkubwa Mine – just waiting for the politicians to exhaust their lies. Don’t log off.

  47. Try to diversify, Copper and other minerals are not the
    only income. If this problem is not solved now then are likely
    to face it again in the hereafter. Govt Advised.

  48. Hey fellow bloggers

    I have Decided to Change my name with immediate effect. Reason being, there is another person on this blog who is claiming to be Baby C. Only God Knows why. I love my Nick, but i have no option… Sorry my dear bloggers.

    To the fake Baby C, you can go on and have that name, I don’t care. But ulichipuba!

    Ba Moze welcome back.

  49. There goes my cousin’s job(mundia Mubiana)… he had just been recently confirmed after wrking for 8 yrs for these guys. This is real and he is now back at my parents’ small home in Ndeke t/ship.
    This has hit me bcoz the guy was helping out a little that side and my QUESTION now is what this regime is doing about it?
    We need focussd men to lead now. We have been singing abt diversification like proverbial YOUTHS ARE THE LEADERS OF TOMMOROW … and the you go and pick pipo like VJ. We must be a nation of jokers! Am hurt deeply by this devlpmnt.

  50. Kansi niyabwanji diverting from the issue at hand to Baby C. Who knows it is th e chap playing you around. FQMOL was using the feed from the mine dumps after congo boarders were closed. Now the copper recovery from the dumps are very minimal. There production cost is somewhere around $4.5 to $6 per kg produced. The drop in the price of finished copper has proved that they can’t continual. Now what I’m failing to understand is the production of today is not the sale of today but we can use that has the basis of our analysis, why have fail to maintain the production after enjoying the high prices of copper in the recent past?

  51. Try to diversify, copper and other minerals are called diminishing
    resources. Why not switch on to other sources of income. If this problem is not resolved now then we have to face it again in the near future. Govt Advised.

  52. Blackmans child

    Ni true story mudala. Tabapela abanabo chance. The Zimbabwean ones just pick the left overs, or worse still, watch by the sidelines. naishupa Bola.

  53. #60 the story of Bwana Mkubwa is not news. In fact the closure issue was given as press statement. The Congolese stopped FQM from bringing its ore from its Lonshi facility in November 2007. From that time, Bwana has been buying ore from around the country from places like Mumbwa, Chingola and the like. However this became uneconomical with the fall of copper prices. Mwale is talking about Mpongwe and Mkushi, those are still not economical at the current copper prices. Bwana has struggled for the past year or so and these investors have been patient. The government is the one that has failed its people and are now looking for a scape goat!!

  54. Matworld

    What baffles me is that Chola(the assailant) analuma item yamunzake Chola ninshi yachokela mu fimo fimo ya Godfridah? Niya banji iyo? Elo sivima brothers che ivi vibili? 😕

  55. I thought at this stage they could have prepared a bail out plan or package alas they are playing the blame game and leaving everything to fate. Its not the best to let Bwana evaporate like that, while the corpse is still warm, the government should find a way of putting it in ICU and perhaps reviving it by perhaps providing finacing facility through ZCCM investment holdings. If there is nothing they can do to stop complete closure, they should look for mitigating ways of helping the perhaps haples 365 by provision of loan facilities or land for self sustaining development ventures and the like. They should be seen to be doing sth!!!

  56. its a sad development, but i dont think we should blame the government for this. the copper market as you all know is not at its best now and we expect such developments.

  57. I had too much hope, and was looking forward to working at bwana mukubwa mine, But now it seens things aint that right in zambia. Can some one help i’m LOOKING FOR A JOB.8-
    }:((

  58. This Government is not serious. The world economy is in turmoil affecting companies like Bwana Mkubwa to close down due to no help from govt over the closed border and uneconomical alternative feeds (like Chambishi & like KCM & like Mopani). What does the government do? Blame management! In the US and in Europe the same is happening and the govt is working ways of supporting such businesses – not blaming anyone! Keep going for holidays at Mfuwe & talking cheap/dull/archaic politics!!!! Shame on RB, Sata & all their cloonies!

  59. Ba Moze You dont have to sort him/her out,or asking Baby C and sweet thang to sort him/her out.He/she will sort her/himself out.

  60. The govy must be discussing a bail out plan for KCM and Mopani – instead of waiting for the two biggest employers in the country to go the Bwana/Chambishi/LCM route thereby bringing the country’s economy to a halt. If RB thinks he can get similar revenue from tourism as from mining, he needs a reality check. Diversification towards agriculture is more reasonable.

  61. Real Baby C

    am fine dear,i have jst bn overwhelmed with work so could not blog.Dont mind that blogger masguerading as u coz she/he never b u.

    Big up to Rashid jones,nine chale,matworld,girly,pf die hard.keep on keeping on with those postings.

  62. Come on RB..get your finger out!!!..You need to push agriculture and Tourism…NOW!!!!..Take the £1.3b you have in reserves and buy the fertilizer or whatever is necessary!!!..STOP TALKING AND GET ON WITH THE JOB!!!!

  63. Kalata Kuli ba LT,

    Intanshi mutende ngamulekosa ninshi cawama.Ba LT I have been analysing what is making some of the bloggers act in a wiered way to an extent that they start impersonating other fellow blogers.At the end of my analysis,I have found that you Ba LT are the cause.You dont bring in the letest news on time,bloggers get so bored with the old news,hence they cant contribute effectively.and they end up attacking each other.

    finally Ba LT my Plea to you is,please try by all means to update us with the letest News as soon as possible,before Bloggers start hurting each other emotionally.

    Naleka Nine

    Matworld-Nice guy!

  64. Get on with real issues not baby c issues. Muchili tu baby? You nowhere far from the cheap politicians you insulting:-@:-@:-@%-(%-(:o):@)~X(o->o-+>:) Im tired of baby C issue. Limbi nimwe ba kasukulu

  65. You See Ba LT nacimyeba Now Ba Chabishi Ex-miner bazanda nabena.Poseniko amano Imwe Napapata. ^:)^^:)^^:)^^:)^

  66. #101

    ulishani,bring up a topic my man and u’ll see that there are serious pipo than u think on this blog.Moreover greetings and jokes are welcome.

  67. How does other Presidents manage to issue ‘a weekly National Address’ Please Matworld-Nice guy, Man kunde, Chambishi Ex miner and others help I need some clarification. 😕

  68. A CORRECTION ON THE NAME XMASS. WHEN YOU SAY XMASS YOU ARE SAYING A MASS WITHOUT CHRIST , BECAUSE ON THIS MASS CHRIST IS X OR ABSENT . THAT IS WHY THERE ARE A LOT OF BAD THINGS ON THE SO CALLED XMASS . IT SHOULD BE CHRISMASS A MASS OF CHRIST . BY THE WAY CHRIST WAS NOT BORN ON 25 DECEMBER.SO IF YOU SAY XMASS IT MEANS CHRIST IS NOT THERE BUT THE devil is there hence all negative things on this day .PLEASE LET US EDUCATE ONE ANOTHER THAT IT IS CHRISMASS AND NOT XMASS .THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS FOR CHRIST TO BE BORN IN OUR LIFE I MEAN TO BE BORN GAIN . IT IS VERY WRONG FOR SOME ONE TO CELEBRATE THE BIRTH OF CHRIST YET YOU HAVE NOT ACCEPTED HIM AS YOUR LORD

  69. Sad people have lost jobs.

    However, DRC did well to stop concentrate exports. African countries should add value to their raw materials. If Zambia exports concentrates, they must stop it also immediately. You make more money and employ more people when you engage in work that adds value to raw mnaterials. Moses Katumbi did well, we should learn from him. I am sure he has just created 365 jobs for Congolese in his country.

    Our govt should help the affected miners to find new jobs at Lumwana etc. Above all Govt should facilitate set up of higher value copper industries.

  70. Too bad Copperbelt. However, when one door is closed the other is open. Try anything you can to sustain yourselves as long as you dont break the law but you can bend it.When you bend the law lawyers assist with possible victory.. :)>

  71. Man Kunde

    Pa south pali best katwishi uko.But to tell you the truth Iam really scared of south africans to an extent that I dont even want to befriend them.The chaps are intimidated by our presence in everything.Walishiba zambians tulaibikapo.

  72. #110 continued.

    Our people should also stop politicizing everything.

    Here in the UK, Woolworths is closing down, over 25,000 employees are losing jobs. The company has been operating for nearly 100 years but it has failed to adjust to competition. While everyone is sad about job losses, it is well known that it is a pure business case – competition has stiffened up and some are winners, like the suppermarkets which have captured a lot of business from the likes of Woolworth. Woolworth has 807 shops in the UK and all are closing by 5th January 2009. Market forces are real. Let us not politicise everything.

  73. X – mas and no job and your leader has no clue whats happening … shame bane. Mune Mattie Nice GUy do you remember kalya ka song ati …
    telly yo mather happy new new yr
    telly yo father happy x mas
    iyapi iyapi iyapi!

  74. Matworld

    Be extra careful my bro especially with the split of ANC coz most likely their politics will dirty and violent.

  75. #113, Matworld, I feel you, I lived in Joburg for 3 years,– in Rosedbank to be precise. I hated those people.. you will never know how I made a fast track exit to wherever Iam…. I wonder how you manage to be in existence after the recent xenophobia issues ?:-?:-?:-?:-?on no no’— I could’t put up with all their bullcrap…:o:o:o:o:o:o:o:o:-h:-h:-h:-h#:-s#:-s#:-s#:-s[-x[-x[-x[-x[-x**==

  76. #113, the name ‘kwerekwere’ nauseated me big time!!! I still’HATE’ those people. Ni mbwafye….. bakapalala elyo ma savages sana….. :-?:-?:-?:-?:-t:-t:-t:-t:-t~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(~X(

  77. #118. Dixie Chick….. I tell you kukosa Kaili pa zed the education systeam is bad so I have no option but to endure all their nonsense.I have Just given myself #years to be in this country then after that go somewhere.

  78. #120, I can help you come over wherever Iam… its endless paradise here. milk and honey mu umwafye..,. freedom of movement,, freedom of speech.. well can’t tell you more……UK guys are queing up to come over here.. just imagine….

    I call this my Island home…though Zedi is my lovely home too. #:-s:d/:d/:d/:d/:d:-w:-w:-w:-w:-w:-w**==**==**==**==**==**==**==**==**==**==**==**==**==**==**==**==

  79. Sorry to all Zambians especially those who have lost their jobs. Times will be hard, but the good Lord God is on our side.

    Nkwali gentelemani ecHi-ecHi for 2011. =;

  80. Sorry Blackman child. I took long to respond. I was paying one of the retrenchee his dues. I have never in my life seen banda addressing the nation while he has been a president!?! If you his weekly addresses on state house website the don’t go there again. That site is worse than gamblin site . Every thing true thing written there contains so much traces of lies or pep talk. And in ZED there is no such thing as weekly address unless they want to talk about what the clergy said in their Sunday service/Mass. Nga ni company Zambia Ngatwalisala. the it is run na kantemba kawama. Mwe babile bamfumu nakomboka. Mucheshe bwino

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